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questioning, and needed to share.

Hi. So I (21F) have been lurking on this subreddit for a while. I have been questioning my sexuality for over two years now, but never really gave myself the time to ponder upon it until covid lockdown happened. Made a throwaway to post here because I'm not comfortable posting on my main acc. Do bear with me, for this has turned out to be long!
Do keep in mind that I have grown up in an Asian country, and still live with my parents. I’m on a gap year right now and because of that and other reasons, I am not in the headspace for a relationship. Even if I did want one, however, currently there aren’t many avenues open to me to explore my sexuality. I’m hoping to move abroad for graduate school, and maybe then I can have a little more space to myself without fear of reproach.
So, growing up, I didn’t even know that same-sex attraction was an option. However my whole childhood, ever since fifth grade, maybe, has been marked by intense female friendships/obsessions towards fellow girl classmates. As someone who wouldn’t quite fit in and therefore didn’t really have a lot of friends, especially in middle school, I would latch onto a particular girl near the beginning of the year (someone I most definitely wouldn’t have quite clicked with! I have no clue what was going through my head except I thought they were cool, and cute, and they also had boobs which were something I did not quite possess yet.) and I would really want to be their friend. I always wanted to talk to them, I would always look to see if they were around, I would be insanely jealous of their other friends, but shy little me could never make a move. I always thought I wanted to be like them; but in retrospect, that doesn’t seem quite the case. And when it didn’t work out, I would be crushed, for a while! Of course, as I grew older, I also made friends (mostly female) whom I loved very deeply, but it was so much calmer and easier to be around them, rather than those that I would get the violent (crush? squish?) on.
I’ve always noticed female beauty, from a young age. I remember, even as far back as fifth grade, how I couldn’t take my eyes off certain girls, how I’d feel strangely drawn to them, whether that was because of their beauty or their confidence. I’d always pay attention to even the smallest details, whether the shape and colour of their eyes or their teeth or their nails. I thought it was just my “artistic eye”, but I never did notice boys the same way. I can notice men if I force myself to focus on them, and can even recognise them as handsome, but I’d never spend the energy to wax poetic about them like I do with women. My eye is almost magnetically attracted to women. I remember an instance when I caught a glimpse of Angelina Jolie in Salt (I think?), climbing a staircase, and I was so fascinated by the way her hips swished. That stayed with me for weeks.
When, in middle school, my entire class would be obsessed with playing at “relationships”, I was never in the thick of it all. Admitted, I was always rather on the fringe of things but neither did I feel any desire to part of it. I thought I was so above it all... sigh. Come high school, I was a huge romantic. This is when I finally started noticing boys, and that too, exactly three. (Everyone else was still pretty much invisible to me in terms of attraction unless someone pointed them out. Then I could appreciate them in a sort of detached manner.) The first was someone that I thought was cute for maybe a month (and also somehow coincided with the month I got my first period), the other two were boys I was all out obsessed with, for the majority of high school, and I would think all the time about becoming friends with them, felt the butterflies in the stomach, everything, but never wanted to ask them out as I thought I would be risking trouble (there was always an undercurrent of gossip from the students’ side and disapproval from the teachers) There is nothing in common, physically, between these crushes. I liked their personalities; I found that they were kind and attentive to me, something I saw rarely, and maybe I thought they could like me, and that’s what started me on the path of liking them. But after school, I didn’t even know what I saw in them. (I’ll concede that one of them is genuinely one of the sweetest people I’ve ever met, though, and still makes me feel very loved on the few occasions we connect.)
All this while, my relationships with girls went on just the same. I found some friends, became pretty devoted to them, always secretly thought of them as being as good as relationship, wrote what I saw as love letters to them, became pretty beat up over them leaving school for some reason or other... sometime in high school I started really badly wanting to cut my hair and try out an androgynous look (even before I knew the whole concept of being non-binary!) and that’s a desire that still persists within me today. (I switch gender expressions in my head.) By the end of school, I became rather disillusioned with notions of romance, and decided not to bother having crushes on boys.
On literally the very first day of uni, I ended up falling for yet another girl (let us call her N) after maybe ten minutes of conversation... but for a very long time, couldn’t even make friends with her. And when I finally did, there was this other girl (let’s call her K) who was already N’s closest friend (at that point in time.) The jealousy overpowered me again, stronger than it ever had before... I felt like K had usurped my spot. Not only did I want N to be my best friend, I wanted us to bare our souls to each other. And I hated K... I outright hated someone I would otherwise have had no humanly possible reason to hate. I couldn’t bear to see K around N. I have never, never felt this jealousy for those boy crushes I had...
It was also in uni that I started to notice just how much I loved women, and to look at women. It was only in that first year of uni that I was learning about the whole LGBTQ+ community, and in the process of becoming an ally (in my head, because even though same-sex relationships were decriminalised in my country only a few years ago, acceptance has only been catching on, that too, it only comes from the more privileged and therefore more progressive members of my generation with access to resources to learn all about this) At first, I felt perverted for the way my eyes would rove about a woman’s body; I thought I was merely perpetuating the male gaze. As I started accepting this attraction to women, I started to notice parts of my attraction more. I keep thinking about how it would feel to kiss and caress a woman, about how they would smell and feel, lying naked next to them in bed. I’ve had dreams about women, with and without clothes :P I get weirdly excited when a woman in some state of undress shows up on something I’m watching.
The more I have given myself permission to think about women, the more various scenarios come to life to in my head as vividly as I can see, so unlike the vague, nameless, faceless visions of relationships with men I would always shut out of my head. I think about sharing domestic felicity with women, something I have always dreaded doing with men. And it makes me so deliriously happy to think of it. I remember how sleepless I was the night one of my old school friends came out to me as gay, fantasising about dating her. (of course, I found out the next day that she is not single.) I think about how the only heterosexual relationships that are really appealing to me are fictional ones. In all the others that I’ve seen in real life I often end up thinking that the girl is far too good for the guy. Honestly, the concept of sexual attraction, of why anyone would want a one-night stand, only really clicked when I gave myself permission to feel what I’d denied (back in uni) for so long. Unfortunately, the majority of this acceptance happened when I had enough time to myself to examine my feelings, under lockdown, after I’d left uni and moved back home because of the pandemic. Until then I’d just been pushing it to the back of my head.
It was pretty much my experiences in uni that led me to be questioning my sexuality, which is when this thought occurred to me: how crazy is it that I have always loved women more than men my entire life, and yet I’m expected to end up marrying a man, despite me vaguely dreading the prospect for as long as I can remember? I’m pretty sure there’s some element of me wanting to be my own person and do my own thing after years of not truly being able to do that and feeling like a marriage will tie me down; but somehow it feels a lot more natural with a wife in the picture. Idk. I will add that I’ve read the masterdoc and the wiki and the “things straight women don’t say” and while I can’t depend wholly on it due to my lack of dating experience, they helped me to sort through my feelings, a lot.
Truly, I just want to know that I am valid for even questioning my sexuality. I feel like I’m making a big deal out of nothing and maybe I’m a straight (but repressed??) woman after all with really intense feelings and a weird fetish. I remember how happy I was when I allowed myself to realise just how much I loved women, but now I find that I’m forcing myself to look at men’s bodies and get really anxious, my heart rate ratcheting, wondering if I can’t find them hot, if I’m just not used to the idea of male bodies, what if I just haven’t met the ideal man yet, what if I’m jumping to conclusions and what not. Some part of me feels that I’m somehow broken to not be able to love men that way, if indeed I can’t.
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My Final Terraria Thoughts

Hello everyone, Terraria is a game I hold very dearly; I've been playing it for 8 years of my life and it's even the reason I signed up for Steam back in the day. This game's given me so much joy and entertainment, and I want to give something back while I still have a chance. For years now I've had a document where I wrote down ideas I had for the game, oftentimes things that felt missing, such as all the new uses for Amber that just got added to bring it in line with the other gems. 1.4 is the last major update to the game, but we know there's at least one more small patch coming to the game to add in the vanity contest winners, and then after that who knows, most likely not much after that. So I wanted to finally post my collective thoughts over the years and see what you all think, and hopefully/possibly this post could make the rounds and find its way to the right set of eyeballs to make something real happen with it. I know it's wishful thinking, but even if nothing comes of it perhaps some intrepid modder(s) could find some things of use here. So without further ado, here's everything that I think feel missing and could be added to the game to make things the littlest bit more cohesive and fleshed out:
-Terraria Ideas:
⦁ Beating the game (Moon Lord) lets you select your ore types when generating new worlds, including which ores you'll get in Hardmode, much like how beating the Wall of Flesh used to be the unlock trigger for World Evil Selection at World Creation. Perhaps for simplicity's sake maybe just make it a binary choice between the classic ores and the new ores for pre-hardmode and hardmode, so you’d just need 4 little buttons and a random for two choices.
⦁ New Items: Nebula Hook, Solar Hook, Vortex Hook, and Stardust Hook - Made from their respective type of lunar fragments. The purpose of this is so you can have the option of using one hook design from the Lunar Hook instead of all 4 of them. They should each have 3 arms, travel 35 blocks, and glow their respective color like the lunar hook parts do.
⦁ New (Old) Items: Ancient Furnace and Ancient Hellforge, generated rarely in underground cabins and the underworld, respectively. Each is functionally identical to their current counterparts, but they each use the old pre 1.2 pizza-oven looking sprites.
⦁ New (Old) Item: Ancient Blade of Grass - Made using the same recipe and has the same stats as the Blade of Grass but made at a demon/crimson altar and uses the old sprite, in much the same was as the Ancient Hallowed Armor. Compatible with the Night's Edge Crafting Recipe.
⦁ New Item: Mirrored Visor, made from the blindfold and the pocket mirror, replaces the blindfold in the Ankh's crafting recipe. Ankh and Ankh shield now also protect against Stoned Debuff to reflect this.
⦁ Add Hand Warmer into the Ankh's Crafting Recipe, Ankh and Ankh Shield now protect against Frozen as well as Chilled.
⦁ New Item: Charm of Life - Combination of the Cross Necklace with the Charm of Myths, combines their effects.
⦁ New Items: A reinforced door that cannot be forced open/broken down by enemies as easily as a regular door that is made out of iron/lead and wood, and another even stronger door that is made out of a hardmode material that is completely unbreakable/openable by enemies.
⦁ New Items: Purple, Pink, and Red Snow Blocks - Surface Snow biomes can be corrupted/crimsoned/hallowed like deserts and underground ice biomes.
⦁ New Items: Corrupt/hallowed/crimson jungle grass on mud, so jungle no longer gets converted to dirt blocks when taken over and ruined. Green Solution turns it back to Jungle Grass.
⦁ Sprite Change: The King Slime Mask should have a little crown on it to match with the boss’ new sprite and the Queen Slime Mask, then maybe keep the old one in as an Ancient King Slime mask, or move it to a rare drop from regular slime enemies and call it the Slime Mask.
⦁ New Item: Pink Banner - This way all team colors are represented along with the other red, blue, green and yellow banners that existed before the pink team was added, crafted the same way as them, just for consistency.
⦁ New Item: Four Leaf Clover - A hardmode Information Accessory that Displays your current Luck Value. I think it should be a hardmode accessory since it would only be obtainable late into the game, and since the Luck value is supposed to be a secret and mysterious thing, this aspect of it would be maintained for a while.
⦁ New Item: Charmed Phone - Crafted by combining the Cell Phone with the Four Leaf Clover. This lucky combination brings the number of information points displayed up from the Cell Phone's 12 up to an ironic 13. The name being a pun on charmed as in enchanted but also the sprite would be the cell phone with a little shamrock charm hanging off it. I like it being a new item instead of the Four Leaf Clover being retroactively added to the PDA’s recipe because this doesn’t impede acquiring the PDA/Cell Phone pre-hardmode, then later the Clover can be added to it.
⦁ New Items: Pearl Necklace, Black Pearl Necklace, Pink Pearl Necklace - A series of 3 visual accessories that when equipped provide a small passive bonus to the Luck Value, increasing in strength according to the rarity of the pearls used, the necklaces do not stack with themselves or each other, the largest benefit you have equipped is the one used, Pearl Necklace < Black Pearl Necklace < Pink Pearl Necklace. This gives the player something else to do with Pearls that is both aesthetically and mechanically beneficial.
⦁ Santa Claus de-spawning instead of dying when Christmastime ends, with a departure message like the traveling merchant, just for consistency.
⦁ Combining music boxes into a jukebox that can play any song in the game with a UI to select the song.
⦁ There is little reason the Candy Cane Hook should have the lime rarity as it is worse than a lot of the other pre-hardmode hooks. You could argue that it's because it is only available during Christmas which makes it really rare, but the Bat Hook obtained during Halloween is about as rare but is actually better and sells for less, and it only has a rarity of orange. I realize this is a huge nitpick.
⦁ Sound Effect Change: When you take damage while wearing the full creeper costume, you should make a hiss noise instead of the usual hurt sound, similar to the necro armor and frost armor alternate hurt sounds.
⦁ The Witch Doctor should only sell Corrupted/Crimson Fountains on worlds that have that respective world evil, instead of always selling both.
⦁ The Armored Viking should be able to drop the Viking Helmet so that it isn't hard to acquire once hardmode starts since Undead Vikings start spawning much less at that point.
⦁ Sprite Change: The undead miner should be re-skinned to be wearing the mining clothes, especially since it drops them.
⦁ UI Change: Add a star icon to the top-right corner of completed bestiary entries.
⦁ Mechanics/Balance Change: Having multiple frog leg tinkers to not stack their frog leg effect to make them consistent with things like boot, bottle, balloon, and celestial stone tinkers.
⦁ Increase Hallowed Hood's Armor Rating up from 1, perhaps like 3-4? It has a weirdly low defense value.
⦁ Mechanics Change: Change Sunflowers and Peace Candles to not affect the spawn rates of Critters and other peaceful creatures, just hostile ones.
⦁ UI Change: Change Default Character Difficulty back to Classic, not Journey, I've made so many characters in 1.4 that I've had to delete and Re-do because I keep forgetting that it doesn't default to normal anymore.
⦁ Have the Steampunker sell the world evil Clentaminator Biome of the opposite world evil on Blood Moons/Solar Eclipses if she's in a graveyard during them, much like how the Dryad now sells the alternate world evil seeds in a graveyard.
⦁ Have Oasis Crates also contain Pyramid loot so the pyramids' items can be obtained on any world, even if you didn't get any Pyramids or didn't get the loot you wanted.
-Achievement Ideas:
⦁ …Do Us Part. - Kill the bride (Matches with The Groom's Achievement of "Till Death...")
⦁ Royal Radiance - Defeat the Empress of Light
⦁ Say Hello to My Little Friend! - Obtain and use your first pet summoning item.
⦁ Speedrunner - Kill any Boss on the first night.
⦁ Mimicry - Defeat a mimic
⦁ Terraria-Mobile - Craft the Cell Phone
⦁ What are Those? - Craft the Terraspark Boots, the ultimate footwear for any adventurer.
⦁ All-Shielding Ankh - Craft the Ankh Shield, the ultimate defense against all harm.
⦁ Royal Delicacy - Defeat Queen Slime, the lady of all things slimy (Matches with King Slime’s Achievement description).
⦁ Journey's End - Craft the Zenith, the ultimate blade made from the blades along the way.
⦁ Dungeon Defender - Defeat the Old One's Army for the first time.
⦁ Dungeon Defender II - Defeat the Old One's Army at its strongest.
⦁ But Why? - Craft a toilet from cactus.
⦁ What a Waste - Craft a Terra Toilet, the ultimate Hero's Throne.
⦁ Celebrate Good Times - Attend a Party
⦁ A Peaceful Night... - Earn your first lantern night, a celebration of a major victory.
⦁ What're You Buying? - Purchase an item from the Skeleton Merchant
-Less Reasonable/More Intensive Ideas:
⦁ Dye plants and strange plants can be broken with any weapon just like herbs and grass.
⦁ Corruption/hallow/crimson jungle, ocean, and snow biomes specific enemies like the dark and light mummies for the desert.
⦁ The more people you’ve got on a server, the more hit points the bosses have, scale the boss difficulty with player count on all difficulties.
⦁ There really should be a way to upgrade the summoner emblem into something better, as mages get the celestial emblem, warriors get the Mechanical Glove/Fire Gauntlet, and rangers get the sniper scope.
⦁ Expand the wooden crates loot table to include more wooden chest items.
⦁ Sand Mimic for the Underground Desert, Jungle Mimic for the Underground Jungle, both matching appearance and size with the Ice Mimic but brown and green in color. Respectively.
⦁ New Item: Frozen Hero Shield, crafted from the Frozen Shield and the Flesh Knuckles, the Hero Shield and the Frozen Turtle Shell, or the Frozen Shield and the Hero Shield, combining the effects of the three initial items used to make it.
⦁ Re-add old Stardust Guardian Down-Down Sentry functionality on top of the new current function so it can passively defend the player when it's with them or defend a particular area it's sent to if you want it to with punches and the old explosion attack, because these two functions don’t clash with each other.
⦁ Add the Dunerider Boots to the crafting recipe of the Terraspark boots along with the Lava Waders and Frostspark Boots, add the Dunerider boots effects to the Terraspark Boots.
⦁ Purist - Cleanse your world of all the evil of the Corruption/Crimson and Hallow. I'm hesitant about an achievement for doing this because it would be quite tedious to accomplish even with the Clentaminator, so it might not be a good idea.
Alright, wasn't that quite the long read? Congratulations on making it to the end! Anyone feel free to share this around, I would love for this little post to accomplish something, thanks everyone! Oh and please let me know in the comments what you think and if you've got any ideas yourselves.
tl;dr - love game, game good, here things
EDIT, later additional thoughts:
⦁ New Item: Treasure Ring - Made from the Greedy Ring and the Treasure Magnet, combines their effects.
⦁ New Item: Underworld Tackle Bag - Made from the Angler Tackle Bag and the Lavaproof Fishing Hook, combines their functions. None of its effects stack with the angler tackle bag, but it does stack with an Angler Earring.
⦁ New Item: Bottomless Honey Bucket - Obtained from fishing in Honey in Hardmode.
⦁ New Item: Honey Absorbant Sponge - Obtained From Fishing in Honey in Hardmode.
⦁ New Item: Multi-Absorbant Sponge - Crafted From all 3 Absorbant Sponges, can absorb any liquid.
⦁ New Item: Multi-Bottomless Bucket - Crafted from all 3 Bottomless Buckets, right click to cycle which liquid will be poured with left click.
⦁ Old Item: Re-add the Orb of Light, have it be made by crafting with the Shadow Orb and purification powder, for those who care about it.
⦁ New Item: Shadowflame Whip - Dropped by the Goblin Summoner, inflicts shadowflame debuff in some form.
⦁ Mechanics Change: Make Whips benefit from flasks just like how they benefit from the Titan Glove line by gaining autoswing. Change the Cool Whip Snowflake projectile to inflict Frostburn, which makes sense item-wise since it’s made from a Frost Core. These two changes combined with the new Whip above enable Summoners to inflict all the melee debuffs as well.
submitted by Dan_The_Druid to Terraria [link] [comments]

[They] Are Not Journalists. [They] Are Not Reporters. [They] Are Professional Mouthpieces. [They] Are The 'Clowns In America'. Names, Headshots, And News Organization. 18 U.S. Code § 2384 - Seditious Conspiracy 18 U.S. Code § 1962 - R.I.C.O. + 'Crimes Against Humanity'

[They] Are Not Journalists. [They] Are Not Reporters. [They] Are Professional Mouthpieces. [They] Are The 'Clowns In America'. Names, Headshots, And News Organization. 18 U.S. Code § 2384 - Seditious Conspiracy 18 U.S. Code § 1962 - R.I.C.O. + 'Crimes Against Humanity'
When You’re Sitting Comfortably In Front Of Your TV, Keep In Mind That The Actual Patent For The Television Was Filed As Electromagnetic Nervous System Manipulation Apparatus.

WarNuse

WarNuse
At any rate, here are the patents. Just reading some of them helped me to understand the attacks against me and to resist them. Round-robin voices–a man, woman, and child–at different frequencies–are just one example.
Hearing Device – US4858612 – Inventor, Phillip L. Stocklin – Assignee, Mentec AG. A method and apparatus for simulation of hearing in mammals by introduction of a plurality of microwaves into the region of the auditory cortex is shown and described. A microphone is used to transform sound signals into electrical signals which are in turn analyzed and processed to provide controls for generating a plurality of microwave signals at different frequencies. The multifrequency microwaves are then applied to the brain in the region of the auditory cortex. By this method sounds are perceived by the mammal which are representative of the original sound received by the microphone.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US4858612
Hearing System – US4877027 – Inventor & Assignee, Wayne B. Brunkan. Sound is induced in the head of a person by radiating the head with microwaves in the range of 100 megahertz to 10,000 megahertz that are modulated with a particular waveform. The waveform consists of frequency modulated bursts. Each burst is made up of ten to twenty uniformly spaced pulses grouped tightly together. The burst width is between 500 nanoseconds and 100 microseconds. The pulse width is in the range of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond. The bursts are frequency modulated by the audio input to create the sensation of hearing in the person whose head is irradiated.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US4877027
Silent Subliminal Representation System – US5159703 – Inventor & Assignee, Oliver M. Lowery. A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum, are amplitude or frequency modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the use of loudspeakers, earphones or piezoelectric transducers. The modulated carriers may be transmitted directly in real time or may be conveniently recorded and stored on mechanical, magnetic or optical media for delayed or repeated transmission to the listener.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5159703
Method and Device for Interpreting Concepts and Conceptual Thought from Brainwave Data & for Assisting for Diagnosis of Brainwave Disfunction – US5392788 – Inventor, William J. Hudspeth – Assignee, Samuel J. Leven. A system for acquisition and decoding of EP and SP signals is provided which comprises a transducer for presenting stimuli to a subject, EEG transducers for recording brainwave signals from the subject, a computer for controlling and synchronizing stimuli presented to the subject and for concurrently recording brainwave signals, and either interpreting signals using a model for conceptual perceptional and emotional thought to correspond EEG signals to thought of the subject or comparing signals to normative EEG signals from a normative population to diagnose and locate the origin of brain dysfunctional underlying perception, conception, and emotion.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5392788
Method and an Associated Apparatus for Remotely Determining Information as to Person’s Emotional State – US5507291 – Inventors & Assignees, Robert C. Stirbl & Peter J. Wilk. In a method for remotely determining information relating to a person’s emotional state, an waveform energy having a predetermined frequency and a predetermined intensity is generated and wirelessly transmitted towards a remotely located subject. Waveform energy emitted from the subject is detected and automatically analyzed to derive information relating to the individual’s emotional state. Physiological or physical parameters of blood pressure, pulse rate, pupil size, respiration rate and perspiration level are measured and compared with reference values to provide information utilizable in evaluating interviewee’s responses or possibly criminal intent in security sensitive areas.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5507291
Apparatus for Electric Stimulation of Auditory Nerves of a Human Being – US5922016 – Inventors & Assignees, Erwin & Ingeborg Hochmair. Apparatus for electric stimulation and diagnostics of auditory nerves of a human being, e.g. for determination of sensation level (SL), most conformable level (MCL) and uncomfortable level (UCL) audibility curves, includes a stimulator detachably secured to a human being for sending a signal into a human ear, and an electrode placed within the human ear and electrically connected to the stimulator by an electric conductor for conducting the signals from the stimulator into the ear. A control unit is operatively connected to the stimulator for instructing the stimulator as to characteristics of the generated signals being transmitted to the ear.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5922016
Brain Wave Inducing System – US5954629 – Inventors, Masatoshi Yanagidaira, Yuchi Kimikawa, Takeshi Fukami & Mitsuo Yasushi – Assignee, Pioneer Corp. Sensors are provided for detecting brain waves of a user, and a band-pass filter is provided for extracting a particular brain waves including an α wave included in a detected brain wave. The band-pass filter comprises a first band-pass filter having a narrow pass band, and a second band-pass filter having a wide pass band. One of the first and second band-pass filters is selected, and a stimulation signal is produced in dependency on an α wave extracted by a selected band-pass filter. In accordance with the stimulation signal, a stimulation light is emitted to the user in order to induce the user to relax or sleeping state.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5954629
Layout Overlap Detection with Selective Flattening in Computer Implemented Integrated Circuit Design – US6011991 – Inventors, Wai-Yan Ho & Hongbo Tang – Assignee, Synopsys Inc. The present invention relates to a method for efficiently performing hierarchical design rules checks (DRC) and layout versus schematic comparison (LVS) on layout areas of an integrated circuit where cells overlap or where a cell and local geometry overlap. With the present invention, a hierarchical tree describes the integrated circuit’s layout data including cells having parent-child relationships and including local geometry. The present invention performs efficient layout verification by performing LVS and DRC checking on the new portions of an integrated circuit design and layout areas containing overlapping cells. When instances of cells overlap, the present invention determines the overlap area using predefined data structures that divide each cell into an array of spatial bins. Each bin of a parent is examined to determine if two or more cell instances reside therein or if a cell instance and local geometry reside therein. Once overlap is detected, the areas of the layout data corresponding to the overlap areas are selectively flattened prior to proceeding to DRC and LVS processing. During selective flattening of the overlap areas, the hierarchical tree is traversed from the top cell down through intermediate nodes to the leaf nodes. Each time geometry data is located during the traversal, it is pushes directly to the top cell without being stored in intermediate locations. This provides an effective mechanism for selective flattening.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6011991
Apparatus for Audibly Communicating Speech Using the Radio Frequency Hearing Effect – US6587729 – Inventors, James P. O’laughlin & Diana L. Loree – Assignee, US Air Force. A modulation process with a fully suppressed carrier and input preprocessor filtering to produce an encoded output; for amplitude modulation (AM) and audio speech preprocessor filtering, intelligible subjective sound is produced when the encoded signal is demodulated using the RF Hearing Effect. Suitable forms of carrier suppressed modulation include single sideband (SSB) and carrier suppressed amplitude modulation (CSAM), with both sidebands present.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6587729
Coupling an Electronic Skin Tattoo to a Mobile Communication Device – US20130297301A1 – Inventor, William P. Alberth, Jr. – Assignee, Google Technology Holdings LLC (formerly Motorola Mobility LLC). A system and method provides auxiliary voice input to a mobile communication device (MCD). The system comprises an electronic skin tattoo capable of being applied to a throat region of a body. The electronic skin tattoo can include an embedded microphone; a transceiver for enabling wireless communication with the MCD; and a power supply configured to receive energizing signals from a personal area network associated with the MCD. A controller is communicatively coupled to the power supply. The controller can be configured to receive a signal from the MCD to initiate reception of an audio stream picked up from the throat region of the body for subsequent audio detection by the MCD under an improved signal-to-noise ratio than without the employment of the electronic skin tattoo.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US20130297301A1
Apparatus for Remotely Altering & Monitoring Brainwaves – US3951134 – Inventor, Robert G. Malech – Assignee, Dorne & Margolin Inc. Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subject’s brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US3951134
Auditory Subliminal Message System & Method – US4395600 – Inventors, Rene R. Lundy & David L. Tyler – Assignee, Proactive Systems Inc. Ambient audio signals from the customer shopping area within a store are sensed and fed to a signal processing circuit that produces a control signal which varies with variations in the amplitude of the sensed audio signals. A control circuit adjusts the amplitude of an auditory subliminal anti-shoplifting message to increase with increasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals and decrease with decreasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals. This amplitude controlled subliminal message may be mixed with background music and transmitted to the shopping area. To reduce distortion of the subliminal message, its amplitude is controlled to increase at a first rate slower than the rate of increase of the amplitude of ambient audio signals from the area. Also, the amplitude of the subliminal message is controlled to decrease at a second rate faster than the first rate with decreasing ambient audio signal amplitudes to minimize the possibility of the subliminal message becoming supraliminal upon rapid declines in ambient audio signal amplitudes in the area. A masking signal is provided with an amplitude which is also controlled in response to the amplitude of sensed ambient audio signals. This masking signal may be combined with the auditory subliminal message to provide a composite signal fed to, and controlled by, the control circuit.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US4395600
Apparatus for Inducing Frequency Reduction in Brain Wave – US4834701 – Inventor, Kazumi Masaki – Assignee, Ken Hayashibara. Frequency reduction in human brain wave is inducible by allowing human brain to perceive 4-16 hertz beat sound. Such beat sound can be easily produced with an apparatus, comprising at least one sound source generating a set of low-frequency signals different each other in frequency by 4-16 hertz. Electroencephalographic study revealed that the beat sound is effective to reduce beta-rhythm into alpha-rhythm, as well as to retain alpha-rhythm.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US4834701
Method & System for Altering Consciousness – US5123899 – Inventor & Assignee, James Gall. A system for altering the states of human consciousness involves the simultaneous application of multiple stimuli, preferable sounds, having differing frequencies and wave forms. The relationship between the frequencies of the several stimuli is exhibited by the equation
g=s.sup.n/4 ·fwhere f=frequency of one stimulus; g=frequency of the other stimuli of stimulus; and n=a positive or negative integer which is different for each other stimulus.Click on Link for Full Patent: US5123899
Method of and Apparatus for Inducing Desired States of Consciousness – US5356368 – Inventor, Robert A. Monroe – Assignee, Interstate Industries Inc. Improved methods and apparatus for entraining human brain patterns, employing frequency following response (FFR) techniques, facilitate attainment of desired states of consciousness. In one embodiment, a plurality of electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms, characteristic of a given state of consciousness, are combined to yield an EEG waveform to which subjects may be susceptible more readily. In another embodiment, sleep patterns are reproduced based on observed brain patterns during portions of a sleep cycle; entrainment principles are applied to induce sleep. In yet another embodiment, entrainment principles are applied in the work environment, to induce and maintain a desired level of consciousness. A portable device also is described.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5356368
Acoustic Heterodyne Device & Method – US5889870 – Inventor, Elwood G. Norris – Assignee, Turtle Beach Corp. (formerly American Tech Corp.) The present invention is the emission of new sonic or subsonic compression waves from a region resonant cavity or similar of interference of at least two ultrasonic wave trains. In one embodiment, two ultrasonic emitters are oriented toward the cavity so as to cause interference between emitted ultrasonic wave trains. When the difference in frequency between the two ultrasonic wave trains is in the sonic or subsonic frequency range, a new sonic or subsonic wave train of that frequency is emitted from within the cavity or region of interference in accordance with the principles of acoustical heterodyning. The preferred embodiment is a system comprised of a single ultrasonic radiating element oriented toward the cavity emitting multiple waves.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5889870
Apparatus & Method of Broadcasting Audible Sound Using Ultrasonic Sound as a Carrier – US60552336 – Inventor & Assignee, Austin Lowrey III. An ultrasonic sound source broadcasts an ultrasonic signal which is amplitude and/or frequency modulated with an information input signal originating from an information input source. If the signals are amplitude modulated, a square root function of the information input signal is produced prior to modulation. The modulated signal, which may be amplified, is then broadcast via a projector unit, whereupon an individual or group of individuals located in the broadcast region detect the audible sound.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6052336
Pulsative Manipulation of Nervous Systems – US6091994 – Inventor & Assignee, Hendricus G. Loos. Method and apparatus for manipulating the nervous system by imparting subliminal pulsative cooling to the subject’s skin at a frequency that is suitable for the excitation of a sensory resonance. At present, two major sensory resonances are known, with frequencies near 1/2 Hz and 2.4 Hz. The 1/2 Hz sensory resonance causes relaxation, sleepiness, ptosis of the eyelids, a tonic smile, a “knot” in the stomach, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise frequency used. The 2.4 Hz resonance causes the slowing of certain cortical activities, and is characterized by a large increase of the time needed to silently count backward from 100 to 60, with the eyes closed. The invention can be used by the general public for inducing relaxation, sleep, or sexual excitement, and clinically for the control and perhaps a treatment of tremors, seizures, and autonomic system disorders such as panic attacks. Embodiments shown are a pulsed fan to impart subliminal cooling pulses to the subject’s skin, and a silent device which induces periodically varying flow past the subject’s skin, the flow being induced by pulsative rising warm air plumes that are caused by a thin resistive wire which is periodically heated by electric current pulses.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6091994
Method & Device for Implementing Radio Frequency Hearing Effect – US6470214 – Inventors, James P. O’Loughlin & Diana Loree. Assignee, US Air Force. A modulation process with a fully suppressed carrier and input preprocessor filtering to produce an encoded output; for amplitude modulation (AM) and audio speech preprocessor filtering, intelligible subjective sound is produced when the encoded signal is demodulated using the RF Hearing Effect. Suitable forms of carrier suppressed modulation include single sideband (SSB) and carrier suppressed amplitude modulation (CSAM), with both sidebands present.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6470214
Method & Device for Producing a Desired Brain State – US6488617 – Inventor, Bruce F. Katz – Assignee, Universal Hedonics. A method and device for the production of a desired brain state in an individual contain means for monitoring and analyzing the brain state while a set of one or more magnets produce fields that alter this state. A computational system alters various parameters of the magnetic fields in order to close the gap between the actual and desired brain state. This feedback process operates continuously until the gap is minimized and/or removed.

Multifunctional Radio Frequency Directed Energy System – US7629918 – Inventors, Kenneth W. Brown, David J. Canich & Russell F. Berg – Assignee, Raytheon Co. An RFDE system includes an RFDE transmitter and at least one RFDE antenna. The RFDE transmitter and antenna direct high power electromagnetic energy towards a target sufficient to cause high energy damage or disruption of the target. The RFDE system further includes a targeting system for locating the target. The targeting system includes a radar transmitter and at least one radar antenna for transmitting and receiving electromagnetic energy to locate the target. The RFDE system also includes an antenna pointing system for aiming the at least one RFDE antenna at the target based on the location of the target as ascertained by the targeting system. Moreover, at least a portion of the radar transmitter or the at least one radar antenna is integrated within at least a portion of the RFDE transmitter or the at least one RFDE antenna.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US7629918
Nervous System Excitation Device – US3393279 – Inventor, Flanagan Gillis Patrick – Assignee, Biolectron Inc. (Listening Inc.) A METHOD OF TRANSMITTING AUDIO INFORMATION TO THE BRAIN OF SUBJECT THROUGH THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OF THE SUBJECT WHICH METHOD COMPRISES, IN COMBINATION, THE STEPS OF GENERATING A RADIO FREQUENCY SIGNAL HAVING A FREQUENCY IN EXCESS OF THE HIGHERST FREQUENCY OF THE AUDIO INFORMATTION TO BE TRANSMITTED, MODULATING SAID RADIO FREQUENCY SIGNAL WITH THE AUDIO INFORMATION TO BE TRANSMITTED, AND APPLYING SAID MODULATED RADIO FREQUENCY SIGNAL TO A PAIR OF INSULATED ELECTRODES AND PLACING BOTH OF SAID INSULATED ELECTRODE IN PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH THE SKIN OF SAID SUBJECT, THE STRETCH OF SAID RADIO FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD BEING HIGH ENOUGH AT THE SKIN SURFACE TO CAUSE THE SENSATION OF HEARING THE AUDIO INFORMATION MODULATED THEREON IN THE BRAIN OF SAID SUBJECT AND LOW ENOUGH SO THAT SAID SUBJECT EXPERIENCES NO PHYSICAL DISCOMFORT.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US3393279
Method & System for Simplifying Speech Wave Forms – US3647970 – Inventor & Assignee, Gillis P. Flanagan. A speech waveform is converted to a constant amplitude square wave in which the transitions between the amplitude extremes are spaced so as to carry the speech information. The system includes a pair of tuned amplifier circuits which act as high-pass filters having a 6 decibel per octave slope from 0 to 15,000 cycles followed by two stages, each comprised of an amplifier and clipper circuit, for converting the filtered waveform to a square wave. A radio transmitter and receiver having a plurality of separate channels within a conventional single side band transmitter bandwidth and a system for transmitting secure speech information are also disclosed.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US3647970
Intra-Oral Electronic Tracking Device – US6239705 – Inventor & Assignee, Jeffrey Glen. An improved stealthy, non-surgical, biocompatable electronic tracking device is provided in which a housing is placed intraorally. The housing contains microcircuitry. The microcircuitry comprises a receiver, a passive mode to active mode activator, a signal decoder for determining positional fix, a transmitter, an antenna, and a power supply. Optionally, an amplifier may be utilized to boost signal strength. The power supply energizes the receiver. Upon receiving a coded activating signal, the positional fix signal decoder is energized, determining a positional fix. The transmitter subsequently transmits through the antenna a position locating signal to be received by a remote locator. In another embodiment of the present invention, the microcircuitry comprises a receiver, a passive mode to active mode activator, a transmitter, an antenna and a power supply. Optionally, an amplifier may be utilized to boost signal strength. The power supply energizes the receiver. Upon receiving a coded activating signal, the transmitter is energized. The transmitter subsequently transmits through the antenna a homing signal to be received by a remote locator.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6239705
Method & Apparatus for Analyzing Neurological Response to Emotion-Inducing Stimuli – US6292688 – Inventor, Richard E. Patton – Assignee, Advanced Neurotechnologies, Inc. A method of determining the extent of the emotional response of a test subject to stimului having a time-varying visual content, for example, an advertising presentation. The test subject is positioned to observe the presentation for a given duration, and a path of communication is established between the subject and a brain wave detectoanalyzer. The intensity component of each of at least two different brain wave frequencies is measured during the exposure, and each frequency is associated with a particular emotion. While the subject views the presentation, periodic variations in the intensity component of the brain waves of each of the particular frequencies selected is measured. The change rates in the intensity at regular periods during the duration are also measured. The intensity change rates are then used to construct a graph of plural coordinate points, and these coordinate points graphically establish the composite emotional reaction of the subject as the presentation continues.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6292688
Portable & Hand-Held Device for Making Humanly Audible Sounds Responsive to the Detecting of Ultrasonic Sounds – US6426919 – Inventor & Assignee, William A. Gerosa. A portable and hand-held device for making humanly audible sounds responsive to the detecting of ultrasonic sounds. The device includes a hand-held housing and circuitry that is contained in the housing. The circuitry includes a microphone that receives the ultrasonic sound, a first low voltage audio power amplifier that strengthens the signal from the microphone, a second low voltage audio power amplifier that further strengthens the signal from the first low voltage audio power amplifier, a 7-stage ripple carry binary counter that lowers the frequency of the signal from the second low voltage audio power amplifier so as to be humanly audible, a third low voltage audio power amplifier that strengthens the signal from the 7-stage ripple carry binary counter, and a speaker that generates a humanly audible sound from the third low voltage audio power amplifier.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6426919
Signal Injection Coupling into the Human Vocal Tract for Robust Audible & Inaudible Voice Recognition – US6487531 – Inventors & Assignees, Carol A. Tosaya & John W. Sliwa, Jr. A means and method are provided for enhancing or replacing the natural excitation of the human vocal tract by artificial excitation means, wherein the artificially created acoustics present additional spectral, temporal, or phase data useful for (1) enhancing the machine recognition robustness of audible speech or (2) enabling more robust machine-recognition of relatively inaudible mouthed or whispered speech. The artificial excitation (a) may be arranged to be audible or inaudible, (b) may be designed to be non-interfering with another user’s similar means, (c) may be used in one or both of a vocal content-enhancement mode or a complimentary vocal tract-probing mode, and/or (d) may be used for the recognition of audible or inaudible continuous speech or isolated spoken commands.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6487531
Nervous System Manipulation by Electromagnetic Fields from Monitors – US6506148 – Inventor & Assignee, Hendricus G. Loos. Physiological effects have been observed in a human subject in response to stimulation of the skin with weak electromagnetic fields that are pulsed with certain frequencies near ½ Hz or 2.4 Hz, such as to excite a sensory resonance. Many computer monitors and TV tubes, when displaying pulsed images, emit pulsed electromagnetic fields of sufficient amplitudes to cause such excitation. It is therefore possible to manipulate the nervous system of a subject by pulsing images displayed on a nearby computer monitor or TV set. For the latter, the image pulsing may be imbedded in the program material, or it may be overlaid by modulating a video stream, either as an RF signal or as a video signal. The image displayed on a computer monitor may be pulsed effectively by a simple computer program. For certain monitors, pulsed electromagnetic fields capable of exciting sensory resonances in nearby subjects may be generated even as the displayed images are pulsed with subliminal intensity.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6506148
Apparatus To Effect Brainwave Entrainment over Premises Power-Line Wiring – US8579793 – Inventor, James David Honeycutt & John Clois Honeycutt, Jr. – Assignee, James David Honeycutt. This invention discloses an apparatus and method to affect brainwave entrainment by Very Low Frequency eXclusive-OR (XOR) modulation of a Very High Frequency carrier over a premise’s power-line Alternating Current (AC) wiring. A microcontroller with stored program memory space is used to store and produce the waveforms that lead to brainwave entrainment by controlling an H-Bridge capable of generating bipolar square waves, which output is capacitive coupled to a premises AC power-line and a light sensing device is used by the microcontroller to determine whether to produce daytime or nighttime entrainment frequencies.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US8579793
Method & System for Brain Entrainment – US20140309484A1 – Inventor & Assignee, Daniel Wonchul Chong. The present invention is a method of modifying music files to induce a desired state of consciousness. First and second modulations are introduced into a music file such that, when the music file is played, both of the modulations occur simultaneously. Additional modulations can be introduced, as well as sound tones at window frequencies.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US20140309484A1
Method of Inducing Harmonious States of Being – US6135944 – Inventors, Gerard D. Bowman, Edward M. Karam & Steven C. Benson – Assignee, Gerard D. Bowman. A method of inducing harmonious states of being using vibrational stimuli, preferably sound, comprised of a multitude of frequencies expressing a specific pattern of relationship. Two base signals are modulated by a set of ratios to generate a plurality of harmonics. The harmonics are combined to form a “fractal” arrangement.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6135944
Pulse Variability in Electric Field Manipulation of Nervous Systems – US6167304 – Inventor & Assignee, Hendricus G. Loos. Apparatus and method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject by applying to the skin a pulsing external electric field which, although too weak to cause classical nerve stimulation, modulates the normal spontaneous spiking patterns of certain kinds of afferent nerves. For certain pulse frequencies the electric field stimulation can excite in the nervous system resonances with observable physiological consequences. Pulse variability is introduced for the purpose of thwarting habituation of the nervous system to the repetitive stimulation, or to alleviate the need for precise tuning to a resonance frequency, or to control pathological oscillatory neural activities such as tremors or seizures. Pulse generators with stochastic and deterministic pulse variability are disclosed, and the output of an effective generator of the latter type is characterized.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6167304
Method & System for Brain Entertainment – US8636640 – Inventor, Daniel Wonchul Chang – Assignee, Brain Symphony LLC. The present invention is a method of modifying music files to induce a desired state of consciousness. First and second modulations are introduced into a music file such that, when the music file is played, both of the modulations occur simultaneously. Additional modulations can be introduced, as well as sound tones at window frequencies.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US8636640
Method & Apparatus for Manipulating Nervous Systems – US5782874 – Inventor & Assignee, Hendricus C. Loos. Apparatus and method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject through afferent nerves, modulated by externally applied weak fluctuating electric fields, tuned to certain frequencies such as to excite a resonance in certain neural circuits. Depending on the frequency chosen, excitation of such resonances causes relaxation, sleepiness, sexual excitement, or the slowing of certain cortical processes. The weak electric field for causing the excitation is applied to skin areas away from the head of the subject, such as to avoid substantial polarization current densities in the brain. By exploiting the resonance phenomenon, these physiological effects can be brought about by very weak electric fields produced by compact battery-operated devices with very low current assumption. The fringe field of doublet electrodes that form a parallel-plate condenser can serve as the required external electric field to be administered to the subject’s skin. Several such doublets can be combined such as to induce an electric field with short range, suitable for localized field administration. A passive doublet placed such as to face the doublet on either side causes a boost of the distant induced electric field, and allows the design of very compact devices. The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or arousal, and clinically for the control and perhaps the treatment of tremors and seizures, and disorders of the autonomic nervous system, such as panic attacks.
This is every person involved in the main stream media that that is in deep shit with no way out.

  • Clowns Exposed ― Faces Of Seditious Conspirators In The U.S. Media.
  • I'll Kick This Off With The 65 “Journalists” WikiLeaks Revealed Accepted To Work With The DNC And The Hillary Clinton Campaign To Influence And Steal The 2016 U.S. Presidential Election.
https://threadreaderapp.com/embed/1213240094703935488.html
submitted by OwnPlant to conspiracy [link] [comments]

What movies did you watch last week (26.04.2020 - 02.05.2020)?

Hello FG,
The weekly thread is back. Hope y'all fine. Let's begin.
BESSIE (2015) - 8/10
The story of legendary blues performer Bessie Smith, who rose to fame during the 1920s and '30s.
A wildly sexy movie. And that’s surprising because you don’t expect it to be so. On a first look, “Bessie” is just another biographical drama from the category “been there, done that and finally died”, but correctly placed priorities and Queen Latifah in the lead role do their job: the film is difficult to look away from. For writedirector Dee Rees there was surely something personal in a story of a plus-sized, queer, dark-skinned black woman who managed to be boss bitch in the era when the odds were disproportionally against her. The heroine exudes an outrageous self-confidence and no-fvks-given attitude and that turns on. Plus, the film is devoid of pathos and didacticism which are typical for this genre.
AMERICAN WOMAN (2018) - 9/10
In a small, blue-collar town in Pennsylvania, a 32-year-old woman's teen daughter goes missing and she is left to raise her infant grandson alone. The story is told over the course of 11 years, from the time her daughter vanishes, through the the trials-and-tribulations of subsequent years looking for closure, leading up the long-awaited discovery of the truth.
The tragedy always hits when you expect it the least. Just when you feel the most comfortable in the ordinariness of day-to-day routine, the life kicks the stool out of your feet and watch you hanging in the air with your face turning dark red and hands frenetically trying to break a tight rope. Any loss is a punch in the gut; the loss of the loved one, however, is one of the most agonizing torments the human being can possibly endure. It screws up your inner compass, deprives of confidence in tomorrow, pushes you in the dark and forces to find an exit all alone and by touch.
However, despite its monstrous power, the loss is relatively fugacious. Soon, it dissolves in a stream of casual chores and concerns, becoming finally a black dot on a map of memories, the look at which gives you a light pinch in the heart but nothing more.
The central enigma of “American Woman” which sets the plot in motion is a teenage girl with ashy-blonde hair and smirky face of Sky Ferreira, who disappears without a trace in the very beginning, leaving her mother with a distressing ignorance regarding her fate and a little grandson on hands. Initial despair gives way to tranquility, the boy grows up, the woman gets a new man and a new job and as years pass by, her missing daughter slowly turns into a yet-another random person on family photos – a barely recognizable and uninteresting phantom from the remote past – until the gut-wrenching finale.
It’s remarkable how in spite of its painful, bleeding core, the movie succeeds to convincingly focus on such mundane things as love, tenderness and support and to convey them even during moments when it seems that there are none of it on screen.
In short, it’s an outstanding film: simple, humane, bittersweet and relatable to anyone with a heart. Sienna Miller, who plays the lead role, has never been better. Her heroine electrifies the plot and contaminates with a fierce, kinetic energy. She’s like a wild tigress you can only admire from afar: magnificently gorgeous, unpredictable, fervent and endearing. It’s a bravura performance.
RADIOACTIVE (2020) - 2/10
A story of the scientific and romantic passions of Marie Sklodowska-Curie (Polish scientist) and Pierre Curie, and the reverberation of their discoveries throughout the 20th century.
Marie Curie may have died more than eighty years ago, but destructive power of her discovery continues to strike, and after Hiroshima, Chernobyl and North Korean nuclear program, its poisonous rays has finally polluted the world of cinema, as Marjane Satrapi, for some reason, has decided to make a movie based on her life, and in doing so, has dropped a major toxic bomb on those poor souls who decided to give it a time.
It didn’t take me long to understand what sort of biopic I’m about to watch: as soon as the clumsy script has pushed Marie and her future husband Pierre against each other on a dreamy Parisian street (so in the first five minutes), I realized that this movie will join the vast and dubious groups of biopics whose writers overstuff them with real-life facts without giving them a proper direction or reflection. “Radioactive” is a retelling of a Wikipedia article for the dumb. Actors, with a smart look on their faces, pour black liquids from one vial to another and say with the aplomb how greatly it’s about to change the course of history. Throwaway stuff like this – which took a “big” subject and degreased it to the state of tasteless, distilled water – was produced by broadcast networks in the 70s and 80s and starred washed-up stars from previous decades. Why the hell it still gets greenlit and is given solid budgets? Satrapi tried to decorate the overall awfulness with various visual delicacies, thanks to what, the film at times looks like a cross between a live-action comic book and a Disney fairy tale, but at the end, all her efforts had an effect of a fig-leaf.
THE WHITE CROW (2019) - 8/10
Director Ralph Fiennes captures the raw physicality and brilliance of Rudolf Nureyev, whose escape to the West stunned the world at the height of the Cold War. With his magnetic presence, Nureyev emerged as ballet's most famous star, a wild and beautiful dancer limited by the world of 1950s Leningrad. His flirtation with Western artists and ideas led him into a high-stakes game of cat and mouse with the KGB.
As an art form, ballet exists outside the zone of my comprehension. I can’t follow the plot, don’t see the beauty in pliés and fouettés, and thus, this biopic of Rudolph Nureyev was interesting to me primarily as a story of a person who lashed out against the system and hasn’t collapsed under its onslaught. Nureyev, as played by the handsome and charismatic actor Oleg Ivenko, is a hot-tempered, narcissistic diva, consumed inside by insecurities, ardent passion for his craft and a desire to enjoy life in all its fullness. The personal in him vastly outweighs the social, and this will undoubtedly put off certain viewers; when given a choice between a duty and an ego, he always goes for the second option. Ralph Fiennes stays away from reflections on whether Nureyev is “likeable” or not, his interest lies in the notion of personal freedom and how it correlates with the one’s social responsibility. For the protagonist, being free meant to drink expensive booze, to visit bawdy shows, to sleep with whomever he wants and to enjoy the company of bourgeoisie (dance in the movie is rather the framing of the story than its heart and pulse). He was an unapologetic hedonist who was self-sufficient enough to not care what others think of him, and the society often get riled up by people like that, while envying them internally. Of course, for the oppressive communist state propagating a hypocritical “equality” and collectivism, and dictating what everyone has to think, do and enjoy, Nureyev was like a fat forehead pimple that was asking to be popped. I don’t really like when movies use such obvious metaphors, but here, a simplistic binary division into “black” and “white” is dead-on, since it highlights the complexity of the character’s nature and his choices.
THE LODGE (2020) - 5/10
A soon-to-be stepmom is snowed in with her fiancé's two children at a remote holiday village. Just as relations begin to thaw between the trio, some strange and frightening events take place.
Disappointing. This movie has a very interesting idea, but the unconvincing twist completely ruins it.
THE MAN WHO CRIED (2000) - 7/10
A young refugee traveling from Russia to America in search of her lost father falls for a gypsy horseman.
Милая сказка, в которой важен не сам сюжет, а то как он снят. Напоминает мультфильм Дона Блута, сыгранный живыми актерами и рейтингом 18+.
EASTERN PROMISES (2007) - 6/10
A Russian teenager living in London who dies during childbirth leaves clues to a midwife in her journal that could tie her child to a rape involving a violent Russian mob family.
Пересмотрел это первый раз за десять лет. Помню что это был триллер на десятку, но сейчас увидел лишь слабое б-муви с колоритным Вигго Мортенсенем. Героиня Наоми Уоттс - тупая дура.
WHY DON'T YOU JUST DIE! (2018) - 3/10
Andrei, a detective and the world's most horrible father, brings together a terrible group of people in his apartment: his resentful actress daughter, an angry thug, and a cheated cop. Each one of them has a reason to want revenge..
Если бы папа сдох в самом начале, фильм бы из-за этого только бы выиграл.
WENDY (2020) - 7/10
The classic story of Peter Pan is wildly reimagined in a ragtag epic. Lost on a mysterious island where aging and time have come unglued, Wendy must fight to save her family, her freedom, and the joyous spirit of youth from the deadly peril of growing up.
The concept of "Wendy" is so simple and obvious that during the entire film I couldn't shrug off the feeling that I'm rewatching something I've seen many times before, even though this is the first time when "Peter Pan" was reimagined as a Malickian parable where magical realism clashes with hyper-realism. Breathtakingly beautiful and achingly sad at times, but in terms of messages and metaphors, it's something that only a fifth grader would think of as new.
BIRTHDAY GIRL (2001) - 3/10
Internet love connections and mail-order brides rarely ever work out, and John should have known. Having never been lucky in the game of love and tired of waiting for the perfect woman to come along, John decides to take his chances and orders a mail-order bride from Russia online. At first, things seem perfect: his new bride Nadia is a gorgeous woman, and although she may not speak much English, her skills in the bedroom more than make up for any communication problems. When Nadia's 'cousins' unexpectedly arrive to celebrate her birthday, John is drawn into their web of corruption and crime.
Блёклая и скучная комедия где весь потенциал был слит в унитаз. Фильмы как этот актеры обычно делают в перерывах между более стоящими проектами.
submitted by Romt0nkon to IMDbFilmGeneral [link] [comments]

A complete guide of and debunking of audio on Linux, ALSA and Pulse

Hey fellow penguins,
A few days ago, an user asked about audio quality on Linux, and whether it is worse or better than audio on Windows. The thread became a mess quickly, full of misconceptions and urban myths about Linux. I figured it would be worthwhile to create a complete guide to Linux audio, as well as dispelling some myths and misconceptions.
To all be on the same page, this is going to be thorough, slowly introducing more concepts.

What is sound? How and what can I hear?

You might remember from high school that sound is waves traveling through the air. Vibrations of any kind cause molecules in the air to move. When that wave form finds your ears, it causes little hairs in your ear to move. Different hairs are susceptible to different frequencies, and the signals sent by these hairs are turned into sound you hear by your brain.
In reality it is a little more complicated, but for the sake of this post, that's all you need to know.
The pitch of sound comes from its frequency, the 'shorter' the waves are in a waveform, the higher the sound. The volume of sound comes from how 'tall' the waves are. Human hearing sits in a range between 20Hz and 20,000 Hz, though it deviates per person. Being the egocentric species we are, waves below 20 Hz are called 'infrasound' and waves above 20kHz are called 'ultrasound.' Almost no humans can hear beyond ultrasound, you will find that your hearing probably cuts off at 16kHz.
To play around with this, check out this tone generator, you can prove anything above with this yourself. As a fun fact: human hearing is actually really bad, we've among the most limited frequency ranges. A cat can hear up to 40kHz, and dolphins can even hear up to 160kHz!!
FACT: Playing loud music is dangerous! If you listen to music and you are feeling a discomfort, you should turn the volume down. A true alert is when you hear a beep - this is called tinnitus, and that beep you're hearing is pretty much the death cry of the cells that can hear that frequency. That beep is the last time you will hear that very specific frequency ever again. Please, listening to loud music is not worth the permanent hearing damage, please dial it down for your own sake! <3

How does my computer generate sound?

To listen to sound, you will probably be using headphones or speakers, inside of them are cones that are driven by an electromagnet, causing them to vibrate at very precise frequencies. This is essentially how sound works, though modern headphones certainly can be pretty complex.
To drive that magnet, an audio source will send an analog signal (a waveform) over a wire to the driver, causing it to move at the frequency of that waveform. This is in essence how audio playback works; and we're not going to get into it much deeper than this.
Computers are digital - which is to say, they don't do analog; processors understand ON and OFF, they do not understand 38.689138% OFF and 78.21156% ON. When converting an analog signal (like sound) to a digital one, we make use of a format called PCM. For PCM to be turned into an analog signal, you need a DAC - or as you probably know it: a sound card. DAC stands for 'Digital to Analog Converter', or some people mistakenly call it "Digital Audio ConverteChip"
PCM stands for Pulse-code Modulation, which is a way to represent sampled analog signals in a digital format. We're not going to get into it too much here, but imagine taking a sample of a waveform at regular intervals and storing the value, and then rounding that value to a nearest 'step' (remember this). That's PCM.
The fidelity of PCM comes from two elements, which we are going to discuss next: sampling rate and bit depth.

What is sampling rate? Or: HOW SOUND GOOD?

Sampling rate is the most important part of making PCM sound good. Remember how humans hear in a range of 20Hz to 20kHz? The sample rate of audio has a lot to do with this. You cannot capture high frequencies if you do not capture samples often enough. Since our ears can hear up to 20 kHz, you would imagine that 20kHz would be ideal for capturing audio; however, a result of sampling is that you actually need twice the sample rate, this is called the Nyquist-Sannon sampling theorem, which is a complicated thing. Just understand that to reproduce a 20kHz frequency, you need a sample rate of 40kHz.
To have a little bit of room and leeway, we settled on a sample rate of 48kHz (a multiple of 8) for playback, and 96kHz for recording. We record at this frequency only to make sure absolutely no data is lost. You might be more familiar with 44.1kHz for audio, which is a standard we settled on for CD playback and NTSC. A lot of scientific research has been done on sound quality, and there is no evidence to suggest people can tell the difference between 48kHz or anything higher.
MYTH BUST: Humans cannot hear beyond 20 kHz, period. Anyone who claims to be able to is either supernatural or lying to you - I'll let you choose which.

What is bit-depth? Or: HOW IT MAKE SOUND REALLY NICE?

Remember how I told you to remember that PCM rounds values to the nearest step? This has to do with how binary works. The more bits, the bigger the number you can store. In PCM, the bit-depth decides the number of bits of information in each sample. With 16-bit, the range of values that can be stored is 0 to 65535. Going beyond this is pointless for humans, with no scientific research showing any proven benefit, though marketeers would like you to believe there's benefits.
MYTH BUST: 24-bit depth is often touted as 'high-resolution audio', claiming benefits of a better sonic experience. Such is nothing more than marketing speech, there is no meaningful data 24-bit can capture that 16-bit cannot.

Channels? Or: HOW IT CAN MAKE SOUND IN LEFT BUT NOT RIGHT?

We'll briefly touch on the last part of PCM audio, channels. This is very self explanatory, humans have two ears and can hear separate sounds on both of them, which means we have stereo hearing. As a result, most music is recorded with 2 channels. For some surround settings, you need more channels, this is why you may have heard of 5.1 or 7.1; the first digit is the amount of channels the PCM carries.
For most desktop usage, the only sound we care about is 2-channel PCM.

Recap

So, we've covered all the elements of PCM sound. Let's go over it quickly: sample rate is expressed in Hz and is how often a sample of a waveform is captured, representing the x-axis of a waveform. Bit-depth is the bits of information stored in each sample, and represents the y-axis of the waveform. Channels decide how many simultaneous outputs the PCM can drive separately, since we have 2 ears, you need at least two channels.
As a result, the standard audio playback for both consumers and professionals is 48kHz, 16-bit, 2 channel PCM. This is more than enough to fully represent the full range of human hearing.

How it works in Linux

So, now that we know how PCM works, how does Linux make sound? How can you make Linux sound great? A few important components come into play here, and we'll need to discuss each of them in some detail.

ALSA

ALSA is the interface to the kernel's sound driver. ALSA can take a PCM signal and send it to your hardware by talking to the driver. Something important to know about most DACs is that they can only take one signal at a time, actually. That means that only a single application can send sound to ALSA at once. Long ago, in a darker time, you couldn't watch a movie while listening to music!
This problem was solved a long time ago with the use of alsalib, but doing mixing at a library level isn't a very good solution to the problem. This gave rise to sound servers, of which many have existed. Before PulseAudio, esound was a very popular one but had many problems, eventually it was succeeded by PulseAudio.

PulseAudio

When you think audio on Linux, PulseAudio is probably among the first things you think of. PulseAudio is NOT a driver, nor does it talk to your drivers. Actually, PulseAudio only does two things that we'll discuss in detail later. PulseAudio talks to ALSA, taking control of its single audio stream, and allows other applications to talk to PulseAudio instead. Pulse is an 'audio multiplexer', turning multiple signals into one through a process that is called mixing. Mixing is an incredibly complicated subject that we won't talk about here.
To be able to mix sounds, one must make sure that all the PCM sources are in the same format (the one that's being sent to ALSA); if the PCM format being sent to Pulse does not match the PCM format being sent to ALSA, pulse does a step before mixing it called resampling. Resampling is another very complicated subject that can turn a 8kHz, 4-bit, 1-channel PCM stream into a 24kHz, 24-bit, 2-channel PCM stream.
These two things allow you to play a game, listen to music and watch YouTube, and notifications to produce a sound all at the same time. PulseAudio is the most critical element of the Linux sound stack.
FACT: PulseAudio is a contentious subject, many people have a dislike for this particular bit of software. In all honesty, PulseAudio was brought to the general public in a bit of a premature state, breaking audio for many people. PulseAudio these days is a very stable, solid piece of software. If you have audio issues these days, it's usually a problem in ALSA or your driver.

What about JACK and PipeWire?

PulseAudio isn't the only sound servedaemon available for Linux, though it is certainly the most popular and most likely the default of whatever distribution you are using. PulseAudio has become a bit of a standard for Linux sound and has by far the best compatibility with most applications, but that doesn't mean there aren't alternatives.
JACK (JACK Audio Connection Kit, a recursive acronym like GNU) is a sound server focused primarily on low latency. If you are doing professional audio work on Linux, you will already be very familiar with JACK. JACK's development is very focused on low latency, real-time audio and is critical for such people. JACK is available on most distros as an alternative, and you can try it for yourself if you so want; but you might find some applications do not work nicely with JACK.
PipeWire is a project that is currently in development, looking to solve key problems that exist in current sound servers. PipeWire isn't just a sound server but also handles the multiplexing of video sources (like a camera). Special attention has been put into working with sandboxed applications (like Flatpaks), which is an area where PulseAudio is lacking. PipeWire is a very promising project that might very well succeed PulseAudio in the future and you should expect to see appearing in distribution repositories very soon. You can try it yourself right now, though it isn't quite as easy to get started with as JACK is.
More audio servers exist, but are beyond the scope of this post.

What is resampling?

Resampling is the process of turning a PCM stream into another PCM stream of a different resolution. Your DAC only accepts a limited range of PCM signals, and it is up to the software to make sure the PCM stream is compatible. There is almost no DAC out there that doesn't support 44.1kHz, 16-bit, 2-channel PCM, so this tends to be the default. When you play an audio source (like an OggVorbis file), the PCM stream might be 96kHz, 24-bit, 2-channel PCM.
To fix that, PulseAudio will use a resampling algorithm. There are two kinds of resampling methods: upsampling and downsampling. Upsamling is lossless, since you can always represent less data with more data. Downsampling is lossy by definition, you cannot represent 24-bit PCM with 16-bit PCM.
MYTH: Downsampling is a loss in quality! This is only true in a technical sense, or if you are downsampling to less than 48kHz, 16-bit PCM. When you downsample a 96kHz, 24-bit PCM stream to a 48kHz, 16-bit stream, no meaningful data is lost in the process; because the discarded data lies outside of the human ear's hearing range.
FACT: Resampling is expensive. Good quality resampling algorithms actually take a non-trivial amount of processing power. PulseAudio defaults to a resampling method with a good balance between CPU time used and quality.

What is mixing?

Mixing is the process of taking two PCM streams and combining them into one. This is extremely complicated and not something we're going to discuss at length. It is not important to understand how this works, only to understand that it exists. Without mixing, you wouldn't be able to hear sounds from multiple sources. This is true not just for PulseAudio and computer sound, this is true for anything. In real life, you might use an A/V receiver to accept sound from your TV and music player at once, the receiver then mixes the signals and plays it through your speakers.

What is encoding?

Finally we can talk a little about encoding. Encoding is the process of taking a PCM stream and writing it to a permanent format, two types exist. You have lossy encoding and lossless encoding. Lossy encoding removes data from the PCM stream to safe space. Usually the discarded data is useless to you, and will not make a difference in sound quality; examples of lossy encoding are MP3, AAC and Ogg Vorbis. Lossless encoding takes a PCM stream and encodes it in such a way that no data is lost, examples of lossless encodings are FLAC, ALAC and WAV.
Note that lossy and lossless do not mean compressed and uncompressed. A lossless format can be compressed and usually is, as uncompressed lossless encoding would be very large; it would just be the raw PCM stream. An example of lossless uncompressed audio is WAV.
A new element encodings bring is their bit rate, not to be confused with samplerate and bit depth. Bit rate has to do with how much data is stored in every second of audio. For a lossless, uncompressed PCM stream this is easy to calculate with the formula bit rate = sample rate * bit depth * channels, for 16-bit, 48kHz, 2 channel PCM this is 1,5 Mbit. To get the value in bytes, divide by 8, thus 192kB per second.
The bit rate of an encoder means how much the audio will be compressed. PCM compression is super complicated, but it generally involves discarding silence, cutting off frequencies you cannot hear, and so forth. Radio encoding has a bit rate of roughly 128 Kbps, while most CDs have a bit rate of 1360kbps.
Lastly, there is the concept of VBR and CBR. VBR stands for Variable Bit Rate, which CBR stands for Constant Bit Rate. In a VBR encoding, the encoder aim for a target bit rate that you set, but it can deviate if it thinks it needs more or less. CBR will encode a constant bit rate, and will never deviate.
MYTH: Lossless sounds better than lossy. This is blatantly untrue, lossless audio formats were created for perservation and archival reasons. When you encode a lossy file from a lossless source, and you make sure that it's a 48kHz, 16-bit PCM encoding, you will not lose any important information. What is enough depends on the quality of the encoder. For OggVorbis, 192kbps is sufficient, for MP3, 256kbps should be preferred. 320kbps is excessive and the highest quality supported by MP3. In general, 256kbps does the trick, but with storage being abundant these days, you can play it safe and use 320kbps if it makes you feel better.
MYTH: CBR is better than VBR. There is no reason not to use VBR at all, there is no point in writing 256Kbps of data if there is only silence or a constant tone. Let your encoder do what it does best!
FACT: Encoding a lossy format to another lossy format will result in a loss of data! You will compress data that is already compressed, which is really bad. When encoding to a lossy format, always use a high quality recording in a lossless format as the source!
I DON'T BELIEVE YOU: This article from the guys Xiph (the people who brought you FLAC and Ogg Vorbis) explain it better than I can: https://people.xiph.org/%7Exiphmont/demo/neil-young.html

TL;DR, I JUST WANT THE BEST SOUND QUALITY

Here is a quick guide to achieving great sound quality on Linux with the above in mind.
As you can see, there's little you can do in Linux in the first place, so what can you do if you want better sound?
MYTH: Linux sound quality is worse than Windows. They are exactly the same, Pulse doesn't work that different from how Windows does mixing and resampling.
MYTH: Linux sound quality can be better than Windows. They are exactly the same. All improvements in quality come from the driver and your DAC, not the sound server. Pulse and ALSA do not touch the PCM beyond moving it around and resampling it.
I hope this (long) guide was of help to you, and helped to dispell some myths. Did I miss anything? Ask or let me know, and I'll answer the best I can. Did I make any factual errors? Please correct me with a source and I'll amend the post immediately.
submitted by _Spell_ to linux [link] [comments]

Comprehensive Guide for getting into Home Recording

I'm going to borrow from a few sources and do my best to make this cohesive, but this question comes up a lot. I thought we had a comprehensive guide, but it doesn't appear so. In the absence of this, I feel that a lot of you could use a simple place to go for some basics on recording. There are a couple of great resources online already on some drumming forums, but I don't think they will be around forever.
Some background on myself - I have been drumming a long time. During that time, home recording has gone from using a cassette deck to having a full blown studio at your finger tips. The technology in the last 15 years has gotten so good it really is incredible. When I was trying to decide what I wanted to do with my life, I decided to go to school for audio engineering in a world-class studio. During this time I had access to the studio and was able to assist with engineering on several projects. This was awesome, and I came out with a working knowledge of SIGNAL CHAIN, how audio works in the digital realm, how microphones work, studio design, etc. Can I answer your questions? Yes.

First up: Signal Chain! This is the basic building block of recording. Ever seen a "I have this plugged in but am getting no sound!" thread? Yeah, signal chain.

A "Signal Chain" is the path your audio follows, from sound source, to the recording device, and back out of your monitors (speakers to you normies).
A typical complete signal chain might go something like this:
1] instrument/sound source 2] Microphone/TransducePickup 3] Cable 4] Mic Preamp/DI Box 5] Analog-to-Digital Converter 6] Digital transmission medium[digital data get recoded for usb or FW transfer] 7] Digital recording Device 8] DSP and Digital summing/playback engine 9] Digital-to-Analog Converter 10] Analog output stage[line outputs and output gain/volume control] 11] Monitors/Playback device[headphones/other transducers]
Important Terms, Definitions, and explanations (this will be where the "core" information is):
1] AD Conversion: the process by which the electrical signal is "converted" to a stream of digital code[binary, 1 and 0]. This is accomplished, basically, by taking digital pictures of the audio...and this is known as the "sampling rate/frequency" The number of "pictures" determines the frequency. So the CD standard of 44.1k is 44,100 "pictures" per second of digital code that represents the electrical "wave" of audio. It should be noted that in order to reproduce a frequency accuratly, the sampling rate must be TWICE that of the desired frequency (See: Nyquist-Shannon Theorem). So, a 44.1 digital audio device can, in fact, only record frequencies as high as 22.05khz, and in the real world, the actual upper frequency limit is lower, because the AD device employs a LOW-PASS filter to protect the circuitry from distortion and digital errors called "ALIASING." Confused yet? Don't worry, there's more... We haven't even talked about Bit depth! There are 2 settings for recording digitally: Sample Rate and Bit Depth. Sample rate, as stated above, determines the frequencies captured, however bit depth is used to get a better picture of the sample. Higher bit depth = more accurate sound wave representation. More on this here. Generally speaking, I record at 92KHz/24 bit depth. This makes huge files, but gets really accurate audio. Why does it make huge files? Well, if you are sampling 92,000 times per second, you are taking each sample and applying 24 bits to that, multiply it out and you get 92,000*24 = 2,208,000 bits per second or roughly 0.26MB per second for ONE TRACK. If that track is 5 minutes long, that is a file that is 78.96MB in size. Now lets say you used 8 inputs on an interface, that is, in total, 631.7MB of data. Wow, that escalates quick, right? There is something else to note as well here: Your CPU has to calculate this. So the amount of calculations it needs to perform for this same scenario is ~17.7 million calculations PER SECOND. This is why CPU speed and RAM is super important when recording digitally.
2] DA conversion: the process by which the digital code (the computer representation of a sound wave) is transformed back into electrcal energy in the proper shape. In a oversimplified explanation, the code is measured and the output of the convertor reflects the value of the code by changing voltage. Think of a sound wave on a grid: Frequency would represent the X axis (the horizontal axis)... but there is a vertical axis too. This is called AMPLITUDE or how much energy the wave is generating. People refer to this as how 'loud' a sound is, but that's not entirely correct. You can have a high amplitude wave that is played at a quiet volume. It's important to distinguish the two. How loud a sound is can be controlled by the volume on a speaker or transducer. But that has no impact on how much amplitude the sound wave has in the digital space or "in the wire" on its way to the transducer. So don't get hung up on how "loud" a waveform is, it is how much amplitude it has when talking about it "in the box" or before it gets to the speakeheadphone/whatever.
3] Cables: An often overlooked expense and tool, cables can in fact, make or break your recording. The multitudes of types of cable are determined by the connector, the gauge(thickness), shielding, type of conductor, etc... Just some bullet points on cables:
- Always get the highest quality cabling you can afford. Low quality cables often employ shielding that doesnt efectively protect against AC hums(60 cycle hum), RF interference (causing your cable to act as a gigantic AM/CB radio antenna), or grounding noise introduced by other components in your system. - The way cables are coiled and treated can determine their lifespan and effectiveness. A kinked cable can mean a broken shield, again, causing noise problems. - The standard in the USA for wiring an XLR(standard microphone) cable is: PIN 1= Cold/-, PIN 2= Hot/+, PIN 3=Ground/shield. Pin 3 carries phantom power, so it is important that the shield of your cables be intact and in good condition if you want to use your mic cables without any problems. - Cables for LINE LEVEL and HI-Z(instrument level) gear are not the same! - Line Level Gear, weather professional or consumer, should generally be used with balanced cables (on a 1/4" connector, it will have 3 sections and is commonly known as TRS -or- TipRingSleeve). A balanced 1/4" is essentially the same as a microphone cable, and in fact, most Professional gear with balanced line inputs and outputs will have XLR connectors instead of 1/4" connectors. - Hi-Z cable for instruments (guitars, basses, keyboards, or anything with a pickup) is UNBALANCED, and should be so. The introduction of a balanced cable can cause electricity to be sent backwards into a guitar and shock the guitar player. You may want this to happen, but your gear doesn't. There is some danger here as well, especially on stage, where the voltage CAN BE LETHAL. When running a guitabass/keyboard "Direct" into your interface, soundcard, or recording device, you should ALWAYS use a "DIRECT BOX", which uses a transformer to isolate and balance the the signal or you can use any input on the interface designated as a "Instrument" or "Hi-Z" input. It also changes some electrical properties, resulting in a LINE LEVEL output (it amplifies it from instrument level to line level).
4] Digital Data Transmissions: This includes S/PDIF, AES/EBU, ADAT, MADI. I'm gonna give a brief overview of this stuff, since its unlikely that alot of you will ever really have to think about it: - SDPIF= Sony Phillips Digital Interface Format. using RCA or TOSLINK connectors, this is a digital protocol that carries 3 streams of information. Digital audio Left, Digital Audio Right, and CLOCK. SPDIF generally supports 48khz/20bit information, though some modern devices can support up to 24bits, and up to 88.2khz. SPDIF is the consumer format of AES/EBU - AES/EBU= Audio Engineering Society/European Breadcasters Union Digital protocol uses a special type of cable often terminated with XLR connectors to transmit 2 channels of Digital Audio. AES/EBU is found mostly on expensive professional digital gear. - ADAT= the Alesis Digital Audio Tape was introduced in 1991, and was the first casette based system capable of recording 8 channels of digital audio onto a single cartridge(a SUPER-VHS tape, same one used by high quality VCR's). Enough of the history, its not so important because we are talking about ADAT-LIGHTPIPE Protocol, which is a digital transmission protocol that uses fiberoptic cable and devices to send up to 8 channels of digital audio simultaneously and in sync. ADAT-Lightpipe supports up to 48khz sample rates. This is how people expand the number of inputs by chaining interfaces. - MADI is something you will almost never encounter. It is a protocol that allows up to 64 channels of digital audio to be transmitted over a single cable that is terminated by BNC connectors. Im just telling you it exists so in case you ever encounter a digital snake that doesnt use Gigabit Ethernet, you will know whats going on.
digital transmission specs: SPDIF -> clock->2Ch->RCA cable(consumer) ADAT-Lightpipe->clock->8Ch->Toslink(semi-pro) SPDIF-OPTICAL->clock->2Ch->Toslink(consumer) AES/EBU->clock->2Ch->XLR(Pro) TDIF->clock->8Ch->DSub(Semi-Pro) ______________ MADI->no clock->64Ch->BNC{rare except in large scale pofessional apps} SDIF-II->no clock->24Ch->DSub{rare!} AES/EBU-13->no clock->24Ch->DSub
5] MICROPHONES: There are many types of microphones, and several names for each type. The type of microphone doesn't equate to the polar pattern of the microphone. There are a few common polar patterns in microphones, but there are also several more that are less common. These are the main types- Omni-Directional, Figure 8 (bi-directional), Cardioid, Super Cardioid, Hyper Cardioid, Shotgun. Some light reading.... Now for the types of microphones: - Dynamic Microphones utilize polarized magnets to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. there are 2 types of dynamic microphones: 1) Moving Coil microphones are the most common type of microphone made. They are also durable, and capable of handling VERY HIGH SPL (sound pressure levels). 2) Ribbon microphones are rare except in professional recording studios. Ribbon microphones are also incredibly fragile. NEVER EVER USE PHANTOM POWER WITH A RIBBON MICROPHONE, IT WILL DIE (unless it specifically requires it, but I've only ever seen this on one Ribbon microphone ever). Sometimes it might even smoke or shoot out a few sparks; applying phantom power to a Ribbon Microphone will literally cause the ribbon, which is normally made from Aluminum, to MELT. Also, windblasts and plosives can rip the ribbon, so these microphones are not suitible for things like horns, woodwinds, vocals, kick drums, or anything that "pushes air." There have been some advances in Ribbon microphones and they are getting to be more common, but they are still super fragile and you have to READ THE MANUAL CAREFULLY to avoid a $1k+ mistake. - CondenseCapacitor Microphones use an electrostatic charge to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. The movement of the diaphragm(often metal coated mylar) toward a ceramic "backplate" causes a fluctuation in the charge, which is then amplified inside the microphone and output as an electrical signal. Condenser microphones usually use phantom power to charge the capacitors' and backplate in order to maintain the electrostatic charge. There are several types of condenser microphones: 1) Tube Condenser Microphones: historically, this type of microphone has been used in studios since the 1940s, and has been refined and redesigned hundreds, if not thousands of times. Some of the "best sounding" and most desired microphones EVER MADE are Tube Condenser microphones from the 50's and 60's. These vintage microphones, in good condition, with the original TUBES can sell for hundreds of thousands of dollars. Tube mics are known for sounding "full", "warm", and having a particular character, depending on the exact microphone. No 2 tubes mics, even of the same model, will sound the same. Similar, but not the same. Tube mics have their own power supplies, which are not interchangeable to different models. Each tube mic is a different design, and therefore, has different power requirements. 2) FET Condenser microphones: FET stands for "Field Effect Transistor" and the technology allowed condenser microphones to be miniturized. Take for example, the SHURE beta98s/d, which is a minicondenser microphone. FET technology is generally more transparant than tube technology, but can sometimes sound "harsh" or "sterile". 3) Electret Condenser Microphones are a condenser microphone that has a permanent charge, and therefore, does not require phantom power; however, the charge is not truly permanent, and these mics often use AA or 9V batteries, either inside the mic, or on a beltpack. These are less common.
Other important things to know about microphones:
- Pads, Rolloffs, etc: Some mics have switches or rotating collars that notate certain things. Most commonly, high pass filters/lowcut filters, or attenuation pads. 1) A HP/LC Filter does exactly what you might think: Removes low frequency content from the signal at a set frequency and slope. Some microphones allow you to switch the rolloff frequency. Common rolloff frequencies are 75hz, 80hz, 100hz, 120hz, 125hz, and 250hz. 2) A pad in this example is a switch that lowers the output of the microphone directly after the capsule to prevent overloading the input of a microphone preamplifier. You might be asking: How is that possible? Some microphones put out a VERY HIGH SIGNAL LEVEL, sometimes about line level(-10/+4dbu), mic level is generally accepted to start at -75dbu and continues increasing until it becomes line level in voltage. It should be noted that linel level signals are normally of a different impedance than mic level signals, which is determined by the gear. An example for this would be: I mic the top of a snare drum with a large diaphragm condenser mic (solid state mic, not tube) that is capable of handling very high SPLs (sound pressure levels). When the snare drum is played, the input of the mic preamp clips (distorts), even with the gain turned all the way down. To combat this, I would use a pad with enough attenuation to lower the signal into the proper range of input (-60db to -40 db). In general, it is accepted to use a pad with only as much attentuation as you need, plus a small margin of error for extra “headroom”. What this means is that if you use a 20db pad where you only need a 10db pad, you will then have to add an additional 10db of gain to achieve a desireable signal level. This can cause problems, as not all pads sound good, or even transparent, and can color and affect your signal in sometimes unwanted ways that are best left unamplified. - Other mic tips/info: 1) when recording vocals, you should always use a popfilter. A pop filter mounted on a gooseneck is generally more effective than a windscreen made of foam that slips over the microphone. The foam type often kill the highfrequency response, alter the polar pattern, and can introduce non-linear polarity problems(part of the frequency spectrum will be out of phase.) If you don't have a pop filter or don't want to spend on one, buy or obtain a hoop of some kind, buy some cheap panty-hose and stretch it over the hoop to build your own pop filter. 2) Terms Related to mics: - Plosives: “B”, “D”, “F”, “G”, “J”, “P”, “T” hard consonants and other vocal sounds that cause windblasts. These are responsible for a low frequency pop that can severly distort the diaphragm of the microphone, or cause a strange inconsistency of tonality by causing a short term proximity effect.
- Proximity effect: An exponential increase in low frequency response causes by having a microphone excessivly close to a sound. This can be cause by either the force of the air moving actually causes the microphone’s diaphragm to move and sometimes distort, usually on vocalists or buy the buildup of low frequency soundwaves due to off-axis cancellation ports. You cannot get proximity effect on an omnidirectional microphone. With some practice, you can use proximity effect to your advantage, or as an effect. For example, if you are recording someone whispering and it sounds thin or weak and irritating due to the intenese high mid and high frequency content, get the person very close to a cardioid microphone with two popfilters, back to back approx 1/2”-1” away from the mic and set your gain carefully, and you can achieve a very intimite recording of whispering. In a different scenario, you can place a mic inside of a kick drum between 1”-3” away from the inner shell, angled up and at the point of impact, and towards the floor tom. This usually captures a huge low end, and the sympathetic vibration of the floor tom on the kick drum hits, but retains a clarity of attack without being distorted by the SPL of the drum and without capturing unplesant low-mid resonation of the kick drum head and shell that is common directly in the middle of the shell.
6) Wave Envelope: The envelope is the graphical representation of a sound wave commonly found in a DAW. There are 4 parts to this: Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release: 1) Attack is how quickly the sound reaches its peak amplitude; 2) Decay is the time it takes to reach the sustain level; 3) Sustain how long a sound remains at a certain level (think of striking a tom, the initial smack is attack, then it decays to the resonance of the tom, how long it resonates is the sustain); 4) Release is the amount of time before the sustain stops. This is particularly important as these are also the settings on a common piece of gear called a Compressor! Understanding the envelope of a sound is key to learning how to maniuplate it.
7) Phase Cancellation: This is one of the most important concepts in home recording, especially when looking at drums. I'm putting it in this section because it matters so much. Phase Cancellation is what occurs when the same frequencies occur at different times. To put it simply, frequency amplitudes are additive - meaning if you have 2 sound waves of the same frequency, one amplitude is +4 and the other is +2, the way we percieve sound is that the frequency is +6. But a sound wave has a positive and negative amplitude as it travels (like a wave in the ocean with a peak and a swell). If the frequency then has two sources and it is 180 degrees out of phase, that means one wave is at +4 while the other is at -4. This sums to 0, or cancels out the wave. Effectively, you would hear silence. This is why micing techniques are so important, but we'll get into that later. I wanted this term at the top, and will likely mention it again.

Next we can look at the different types of options to actually record your sound!

1) Handheld/All in one/Field Recorders: I don't know if portable cassette tape recorders are still around, but that's an example of one. These are (or used to) be very popular with journalists because they were pretty decent at capturing speech. They do not fare too well with music though. Not too long ago, we saw the emergence of the digital field recorder. These are really nifty little devices. They come in many shapes, sizes and colors, and can be very affordable. They run on batteries, and have built-in microphones, and record digitally onto SD cards or harddiscs. The more simple ones have a pair of built-in condenser microphones, which may or may not be adjustable, and record onto an SD-card. They start around $99 (or less if you don't mind buying refurbished). You turn it on, record, connect the device itself or the SD card to your computer, transfer the file(s) and there is your recording! An entry-level example is the Tascam DR-05. It costs $99. It has two built in omni-directional mics, comes with a 2GB microSD card and runs on two AA batteries. It can record in different formats, the highest being 24-bit 96KHz Broadcast WAV, which is higher than DVD quality! You can also choose to record as an MP3 (32-320kbps) if you need to save space on the SD card or if you're simply going to record a speech/conference or upload it on the web later on. It's got a headphone jack and even small built-in speakers. It can be mounted onto a tripod. And it's about the size of a cell phone. The next step up (although there are of course many options that are price and feature-wise inbetween this one and the last) is a beefier device like the Zoom H4n. It's got all the same features as the Tascam DR-05 and more! It has two adjustable built-in cardioid condenser mics in an XY configuration (you can adjust the angle from a 90-120 degree spread). On the bottom of the device, there are two XLR inputs with preamps. With those, you can expand your recording possibilities with two external microphones. The preamps can send phantom power, so you can even use very nice studio mics. All 4 channels will be recorded independantly, so you can pop them onto your computer later and mix them with software. This device can also act as a USB interface, so instead of just using it as a field recorder, you can connect it directly to your computer or to a DSLR camera for HD filming. My new recommendation for this category is actually the Yamaha EAD10. It really is the best all-in-one solution for anyone that wants to record their kit audio with a great sound. It sports a kick drum trigger (mounts to the rim of the kick) with an x-y pattern set of microphones to pick up the rest of the kit sound. It also has on-board effects, lots of software integration options and smart features through its app. It really is a great solution for anyone who wants to record without reading this guide.
The TL;DR of this guide is - if it seems like too much, buy the Yamaha EAD10 as a simple but effective recording solution for your kit.

2) USB Microphones: There are actually mics that you an plug in directly to your computer via USB. The mics themselves are their own audio interfaces. These mics come in many shapes and sizes, and offer affordable solutions for basic home recording. You can record using a DAW or even something simple like the stock windows sound recorder program that's in the acessories folder of my Windows operating system. The Blue Snowflake is very affordable at $59. It can stand alone or you can attach it to your laptop or your flat screen monitor. It can record up to 44.1kHz, 16-bit WAV audio, which is CD quality. It's a condenser mic with a directional cardioid pickup pattern and has a full frequency response - from 35Hz-20kHz. It probably won't blow you away, but it's a big departure from your average built-in laptop, webcam, headset or desktop microphone. The Audio Technica AT2020 USB is a USB version of their popular AT2020 condenser microphone. At $100 it costs a little more than the regular version. The AT2020 is one of the finest mics in its price range. It's got a very clear sound and it can handle loud volumes. Other companies like Shure and Samson also offer USB versions of some of their studio mics. The AT2020 USB also records up to CD-quality audio and comes with a little desktop tripod. The MXL USB.009 mic is an all-out USB microphone. It features a 1 inch large-diaphragm condenser capsule and can record up to 24-bit 96kHz WAV audio. You can plug your headphones right into the mic (remember, it is its own audio interface) so you can monitor your recordings with no latency, as opposed to doing so with your computer. Switches on the mic control the gain and can blend the mic channel with playback audio. Cost: $399. If you already have a mic, or you don't want to be stuck with just a USB mic, you can purcase a USB converter for your existing microphone. Here is a great review of four of them.
3) Audio Recording Interfaces: You've done some reading up on this stuff... now you are lost. Welcome to the wide, wide world of Audio Interfaces. These come in all different shapes and sizes, features, sampling rates, bit depths, inputs, outputs, you name it. Welcome to the ocean, let's try to help you find land.
- An audio interface, as far as your computer is concerned, is an external sound card. It has audio inputs, such as a microphone preamp and outputs which connect to other audio devices or to headphones or speakers. The modern day recording "rig" is based around a computer, and to get the sound onto your computer, an interface is necessary. All computers have a sound card of some sort, but these have very low quality A/D Converters (analog to digital) and were not designed with any kind of sophisticated audio recording in mind, so for us they are useless and a dedicated audio interface must come into play.
- There are hundreds of interfaces out there. Most commonly they connect to a computer via USB or Firewire. There are also PCI and PCI Express-based interfaces for desktop computers. The most simple interfaces can record one channel via USB, while others can record up to 30 via firewire! All of the connection types into the computer have their advantages and drawbacks. The chances are, you are looking at USB, Firewire, or Thunderbolt. As far as speeds, most interfaces are in the same realm as far as speed is concerned but thunderbolt is a faster data transfer rate. There are some differences in terms of CPU load. Conflict handling (when packages collide) is handled differently. USB sends conflict resolution to the CPU, Firewire handles it internally, Thunderbolt, from what I could find, sends it to the CPU as well. For most applications, none of them are going to be superior from a home-recording standpoint. When you get up to 16/24 channels in/out simultaneously, it's going to matter a lot more.
- There are a number of things to consider when choosing an audio interface. First off your budget, number of channels you'd like to be able to record simultaneously, your monitoring system, your computer and operating system and your applications. Regarding budget, you have to get real. $500 is not going to get you a rig with the ability to multi-track a drum set covered in mics. Not even close! You might get an interface with 8 channels for that much, but you have to factor in the cost of everything, including mics, cables, stands, monitors/headphones, software, etc... Considerations: Stereo Recording or Multi-Track Recording? Stereo Recording is recording two tracks: A left and right channel, which reflects most audio playback systems. This doesn't necessarily mean you are simply recording with two mics, it means that what your rig is recording onto your computer is a single stereo track. You could be recording a 5-piece band with 16 mics/channels, but if you're recording in stereo, all you're getting is a summation of those 16 tracks. This means that in your recording software, you won't be able to manipulate any of those channels independantly after you recorded them. If the rack tom mic wasn't turned up loud enough, or you want to mute the guitars, you can't do that, because all you have is a stereo track of everything. It's up to you to get your levels and balance and tone right before you hit record. If you are only using two mics or lines, then you will have individual control over each mic/line after recording. Commonly, you can find 2 input interfaces and use a sub-mixer taking the left/right outputs and pluging those into each channel of the interface. Some mixers will output a stereo pair into a computer as an interface, such as the Allen&Heath ZED16. If you want full control over every single input, you need to multi-track. Each mic or line that you are recording with will get it's own track in your DAW software, which you can edit and process after the fact. This gives you a lot of control over a recording, and opens up many mixing options, and also many more issues. Interfaces that facilitate multitracking include Presonus FireStudio, Focusrite Scarlett interfaces, etc. There are some mixers that are also interfaces, such as the Presonus StudioLive 16, but these are very expensive. There are core-card interfaces as well, these will plug in directly to your motherboard via PCI or PCI-Express slots. Protools HD is a core-card interface and requires more hardware than just the card to work. I would recommend steering clear of these until you have a firm grasp of signal chain and digital audio, as there are more affordable solutions that will yield similar results in a home-environment.

DAW - Digital Audio Workstation

I've talked a lot about theory, hardware, signal chain, etc... but we need a way to interpret this data. First off what does a DAW do? Some refer to them as DAE's (Digital Audio Editors). You could call it a virtual mixing board , however that isn't entirely correct. DAWs allow you to record, control, mix and manipulate independant audio signals. You can change their volume, add effects, splice and dice tracks, combine recorded audio with MIDI-generated audio, record MIDI tracks and much much more. In the old days, when studios were based around large consoles, the actual audio needed to be recorded onto some kind of medium - analog tape. The audio signals passed through the boards, and were printed onto the tape, and the tape decks were used to play back the audio, and any cutting, overdubbing etc. had to be done physically on the tape. With a DAW, your audio is converted into 1's and 0's through the converters on your interface when you record, and so computers and their harddiscs have largely taken the place of reel-to-reel machines and analog tape.
Here is a list of commonly used DAWs in alphabetical order: ACID Pro Apple Logic Cakewalk SONAR Digital Performer FL (Fruity Loops) Studio (only versions 8 and higher can actually record Audio I believe) GarageBand PreSonus Studio One Pro Tools REAPER Propellerhead Reason (version 6 has combined Reason and Record into one software, so it now is a full audio DAW. Earlier versions of Reason are MIDI based and don't record audio) Propellerhead Record (see above) Steinberg Cubase Steinberg Nuendo
There are of course many more, but these are the main contenders. [Note that not all DAWs actually have audio recording capabilities (All the ones I listed do, because this thread is about audio recording), because many of them are designed for applications like MIDI composing, looping, etc. Some are relatively new, others have been around for a while, and have undergone many updates and transformations. Most have different versions, that cater to different types of recording communities, such as home recording/consumer or professional.
That's a whole lot of choices. You have to do a lot of research to understand what each one offers, what limitations they may have etc... Logic, Garageband and Digital Performer for instance are Mac-only. ACID Pro, FL Studio and SONAR will only run on Windows machines. Garageband is free and is even pre-installed on every Mac computer. Most other DAWs cost something.
Reaper is a standout. A non-commercial license only costs $60. Other DAWs often come bundled with interfaces, such as ProTools MP with M-Audio interfaces, Steinberg Cubase LE with Lexicon Interfaces, Studio One with Presonus Interfaces etc. Reaper is a full function, professional, affordable DAW with a tremendous community behind it. It's my recommendation for everyone, and comes with a free trial. It is universally compatible and not hardware-bound.
You of course don't have to purchase a bundle. Your research might yield that a particular interface will suit your needs well, but the software that the same company offers or even bundles isn't that hot. As a consumer you have a plethora of software and hardware manufacturers competing for your business and there is no shortage of choice. One thing to think about though is compatability and customer support. With some exceptions, technically you can run most DAWs with most interfaces. But again, don't just assume this, do your research! Also, some DAWs will run smoother on certain interfaces, and might experience problems on others. It's not a bad thing to assume that if you purchase the software and hardware from the same company, they're at least somewhat optimized for eachother. In fact, ProTools, until recently would only run on Digidesign (now AVID) and M-Audio interfaces. While many folks didn't like being limited to their hardware choices to run ProTools, a lot of users didn't mind, because I think that at least in part it made ProTools run smoother for everyone, and if you did have a problem, you only had to call up one company. There are many documented cases where consumers with software and hardware from different companies get the runaround:
Software Company X: "It's a hardware issue, call Hardware Company Z". Hardware Company Z: "It's a software issue, call Software Company X".
Another thing to research is the different versions of softwares. Many of them have different versions at different pricepoints, such as entry-level or student versions all the way up to versions catering to the pros. Cheaper versions come with limitations, whether it be a maximum number of audio tracks you can run simultaneously, plug-ins available or supported Plug-In formats and lack of other features that the upper versions have. Some Pro versions might require you to run certain kinds of hardware. I don't have time nor the will to do research on individual DAW's, so if any of you want to make a comparison of different versions of a specific DAW, be my guest! In the end, like I keep stressing - we each have to do our own research.
A big thing about the DAW that it is important to note is this: Your signal chain is your DAW. It is the digital representation of that chain and it is important to understand it in order to properly use that DAW. It is how you route the signal from one spot to another, how you move it through a sidechain compressor or bus the drums into the main fader. It is a digital representation of a large-format recording console, and if you don't understand how the signal gets from the sound source to your monitor (speaker), you're going to have a bad time.

Playback - Monitors are not just for looking at!

I've mentioned monitors several times and wanted to touch on these quickly: Monitors are whatever you are using to listen to the sound. These can be headphones, powered speakers, unpowered speakers, etc. The key thing here is that they are accurate. You want a good depth of field, you want as wide a frequency response as you can get, and you want NEARFIELD monitors. Unless you are working with a space that can put the monitor 8' away from you, 6" is really the biggest speaker size you need. At that point, nearfield monitors will reproduce the audio frequency range faithfully for you. There are many options here, closed back headphones, open back headphones, studio monitors powered, and unpowered (require a separate poweramp to drive the monitor). For headphones, I recommend AKG K271, K872, Sennheiser HD280 Pro, etc. There are many options, but if mixing on headphones I recommend spending some good money on a set. For Powered Monitors, there's really only one choice I recommend: Kali Audio LP-6 monitors. They are, dollar for dollar, the best monitors you can buy for a home studio, period. These things contend with Genelecs and cost a quarter of the price. Yes, they still cost a bit, but if you're going to invest, invest wisely. I don't recommend unpowered monitors, as if you skimp on the poweramp they lose all the advantages you gain with monitors. Just get the powered monitors if you are opting for not headphones.

Drum Mic'ing Guide, I'm not going to re-create the wheel.


That's all for now, this has taken some time to put together (a couple hourse now). I can answer other questions as they pop up. I used a few sources for the information, most notably some well-put together sections on the Pearl Drummers Forum in the recording section. I know a couple of the users are no longer active there, but if you see this and think "Hey, he ripped me off!", you're right, and thanks for allowing me to rip you off!

A couple other tips that I've come across for home recording:
You need to manage your gain/levels when recording. Digital is NOT analog! What does this mean? You should be PEAKING (the loudest the signal gets) around -12dB to -15dB on your meters. Any hotter than that and you are overdriving your digital signal processors.
What sound level should my master bus be at for Youtube?
Bass Traps 101
Sound Proofing 101
submitted by M3lllvar to drums [link] [comments]

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