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 How to Succeed with Binary Options Trading at Home 2020

How to Succeed with Binary Options Trading at Home 2020

Binary classification where classifier choose not to classify an observation. CLASSIFICATION with REJECT OPTION [PDF]

submitted by kunjaan to MachineLearning [link] [comments]

Passed OSCP - My Experience

Originally, I was leaning against doing an obligatory post-OSCP Reddit post because I didn’t want to come across as another “look at me - I passed OSCP!!” cringeworthy OSCP Oscar speech, but I decided to go ahead and do one because my experience was perhaps a little unique and answers the much-asked question “can I do OSCP without experience?”.
A quick background to add context…
I’m 31 years old and my employment history is a mixture of sales, graphics, and media-related job roles. I felt discontented for a long time earning (barely) living wage in job roles I had little passion for. Anyway, to cut a long story short, I decided to quit my latest sales job in November last year (2019) to pursue a career in cybersecurity/infosec. I didn’t know what ‘TCP’ or ‘UDP’ was, and I’d never heard of ‘Kali’ or how to run a VM, but I was convinced that this would be the career path for me.
Anyway, I went through Security+ and C|EH from November to March and, just as I was going to start applying for Security Analyst type job roles, our friendly neighbourhood Coronavirus came along and shut down the economy. Even though I had no intention of doing OSCP for another year or two, I thought it was a better option than twiddling my thumbs for a few months, so I decided to sign up for PWK labs and have a crack at it.
Fast-forwarding to yesterday, after a few brutal months and an incredible experience, I finally got the OSCP “you have successfully completed” email.
Apologies in advance for the essay but I just want to go through my journey for those of you that might be in a similar position to the one I was in - limited/zero IT experience and feeling intimidated by the dreaded OSCP mountain.
My journey…
In the weeks leading up to the wait to start my 60 days PWK material and labs, I went through The Cyber Mentor’s Practical Ethical Hacking Udemy course and then went on a Hack the Box rampage, so, by the time my lab time started, I felt like I was in a pretty decent position.
Unfortunately, because I was a naïve idiot, I tackled the labs straight away and went through the PWK PDF casually on the side. This was a big mistake and something I would definitely change in hindsight because it cost me 5 easy points on the exam (I thought I could smash through the PDF exercises during the last week of labs but this didn’t prove to be enough time).
In 60 days I ended up rooting around 40 machines - I didn’t bother going for the networks because it didn’t apply to the exam and, although valuable real-world experience, I didn’t want to get distracted and flood my brain with even more information when it wasn’t going to be relevant for my mission.
One big thing that I did get right was note-taking. I can’t express enough how valuable it is to take detailed notes and build your own cheat sheet library. After every machine I rooted, I did a walkthrough on OneNote and added any new tools/commands to my cheat sheet library. This not only saves precious time in the exam, but it helps you build your own knowledge instead of relying on other people’s cheat sheets without really understanding what you’re doing.
After my 60 days had finished, I spent 1 month on TJ Null’s OSCP Hack the Box list and IppSec’s video walkthroughs. I also can’t stress enough how valuable this learning methodology is. My only regret is that I rushed through it. I’d already booked my exam 30 days after lab time, so I ended up jumping through walkthroughs when I got stuck on boxes instead of exhausting all options. This was another naïve idiot mistake on my behalf and something I would do differently in hindsight. There’s a difference between “trying harder” and “trying harder, but in a smart way”. I was putting 10+ hours in every day but I wasn’t always being efficient with my time. I’d definitely recommend seeking hints and tips on boxes but only after you’ve exhausted all options first, something which I didn’t always do.
Anyway, my first exam attempt came around towards the end of July. Was I ready? No, but I had delusional confidence in myself that has paid off for me more often than not, so I was hoping it would pay off for me again.
My first exam was brutal. I sat in my chair for a total of 23 hours and 15 minutes, with only 3 short 5-minute breaks to get food to snack on. My VPN was shut down after 24 hours and I had a total of 65 points, which I’d been stuck on for the last 8 hours of my exam. I got the BO, root on one of the 20-point machines, root on the 10-point machine, and user on the other 20-point machine. I just couldn’t get root on that last machine.
I was pretty devastated because I’d put my heart and soul into Sec+, C|EH, and OSCP for 7 straight months and I wanted it bad. But my delusional confidence wasn’t enough.
After listening to depressing Taylor Swift songs for a few days (joke), I decided to book another exam in, 4 weeks after my first attempt.
This time around, I decided to go through Tib3rius’s Linux and Windows Privilege Escalation courses (they were great) and go back over some of the HTB machines. I honestly felt at this point that there wasn’t much more study material that I could go through.
2nd exam came up and it was an almost minute-for-minute repeat of the first exam. BO done, 20 point rooted, 10 point rooted, but could only get user on the other 20 point. 65 points again. This time I ended up listening to Taylor Swift + Lana Del Rey.
I was pretty adamant that I could do this and that I was very close, so I sent Off-Sec an email explaining my situation and they were kind enough to allow me another exam attempt without waiting 8 weeks - I booked another exam in 2 weeks after my second attempt.
This time, my preparation was entirely mental. In both my prior exams, I was sat on my chair for over 23 hours because I was flapping around aimlessly like a headless chicken, desperately firing off exploits that I knew wouldn’t work on the other 20-point machine. So, I went into the 3rd exam determined to go at a slow and steady pace, and not let the 24-hour timeframe pressure me into a wild goose chase.
Miraculously, it seemed to work. After 14 hours, I’d done the BO, rooted both 20-point machines, rooted the 10-point machine, and got user on the 25-point machine. 85-ish points in total.
The point of this story is to get across to people that you need to try simpler, not harder. I perhaps failed my first exam because I’d not gone through Tib3rius’s Priv Esc courses, but I failed on my 2nd 100% due to mentality. There was no skill-level difference between my 2nd exam and 3rd exam.
I’ll finish off with my recommended learning methodology and exam tips (for people with limited/zero IT experience):
. The Cyber Mentor Practical Ethical Hacking Udemy course (usually on offer at $14.99-ish)
. Tib3rius’s Linux and Windows Privilege Escalation course (usually on offer at $12.99 each)
. Try Hack Me OSCP Learning Path (I would recommend doing this before HTB - it is $10 for 30 days)
. PWK labs (I personally don’t feel more than 60 days are required - unless you work full-time)
. TJ Null’s OSCP Hack the Box list ($10 for retired HTB machines - very worth it)
. You should be ready for the exam
Exam tips:
. Become proficient with Nmap but use an enumeration tool like nmapAutomator for the exam
. You will need to understand what bash and Python scripts are doing (you don’t need to be able to write them from scratch)
. Don’t be tempted to use a fancy BO methodology for the exam, stick with PWK’s methodology - it works (some of the others don’t)
. Play around with various reverse shell payloads - sometimes a bash one-liner won’t work so you need to go with Python. Sometimes Bash, Python, and netcat won’t work, so you need to understand what alternatives you can use in that scenario
. Get into the habit of reading service manuals. In all 3 of my exams, I came up against machines that had services I’d never even heard of. Fortunately, I’d got into the habit reading service manuals, otherwise, I would have skipped over the services and got lost down a rabbit hole
. Get into the habit of exploiting conventional services in unconventional ways. Just because an SUID binary isn’t on Gtfobins, it doesn’t mean that you can’t exploit the SUID binary in an unconventional way. Again, get into the habit of reading manuals to understand what services do
. Become familiar with Burp Suite. Many exploits won’t work in the way you might expect them to, but they will work if you run them through Burp. Or, at the very least, you’ll be able to understand why they’re not working. This issue came up in my last exam and I would have been completely lost if it weren’t for Burp
. Take breaks if you get frustrated - this is said over and over again by people on this subreddit and it’s an absolute must. The 20 point machine that I couldn’t root after 8 hours on my 2nd exam was on my 3rd exam (thanks Off-Sec - I know you tried to fu*k me with that), but I was able to root it within 1 hour on my 3rd exam, simply because my mindset was different at the time.
. Trust your gut - by doing PWK and HTB machines, you should develop a gut feeling of when you are in a rabbit hole and when you’re on the right track. I ended up rooting over 100 machines before the exam (albeit with plenty of hints and tips) and it helped me develop a good gut feeling. I can’t explain why but there were times in my last exam where I knew I was in the right area even though I wasn’t able to enumerate the specific service version. This feeling simply came from experience. I’m sure many of you watch IppSec’s videos and wonder “how the hell does he know to do X or Y?”. I used to wonder this all the time but after going through dozens of machines, I finally got it. It comes down to experience. Try to do as many machines as you can before the exam to build that gut feeling, and trust it in the exam.
. Embrace failure - this is perhaps the most important thing that I can say. OSCP is a difficult journey and many people fail multiple times before passing. And you know what? That’s okay. It’s okay to fail. It’s how you react to failure that counts. I’m not particularly smart but I embrace failure and I know deep down that I will keep trying until I pass. I was prepared to take the OSCP exam 1000 times if I had to, I was never going to let the exam beat me. I suggest you approach it with the same mentality and not let silly pride prevent you from having a go at it.
One last thing! Join a solid Discord community. This journey has been amazing since day one and a big reason behind that is the amazing online community. I was very active in an HTB community and ended up talking to several people who were going through OSCP at the same time as me. This was honestly such a massive help to me because I didn’t know what the hell I was doing when I first started!
Sorry for the massive rant - I just see so many people on here treating OSCP like an unsurmountable mountain. It’s not. You can do it!
submitted by TheCrypt0nian to oscp [link] [comments]

The first official release of the ZOIA Librarian app is now available!

Version 1.0 is now out for Windows 10, Mac OS X, and Linux (Ubuntu)! It can be downloaded here https://github.com/meanmedianmoge/zoia_lib - see the "How to Install" section.
EDIT: Mac 1.0 release has been updated (see the link above to download the zip), and it should open successfully upon double-clicking the .app file! Apologies for any inconvenience.
If you have a GitHub account, feel free to create an issue regarding any performance issues you encounter. If you don't have a GitHub account, send feedback and bugs to me at [mikebmoger@gmail.com](mailto:mikebmoger@gmail.com).
Overview and tutorial video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLOUrWtG1Pk
User Manual: https://github.com/meanmedianmoge/zoia_lib/blob/mastedocumentation/User%20Manuals/ZOIA%20Librarian%20-%20User%20Manual%20-%20Version%201.0.pdf
Changelog is below. Special thanks to our beta testers, contributors, and supporters for the interest in this application!
Patch Notes Version 1.0 (September 25, 2020)
New Features - Finalized ZOIA binary parsing implementation. Again, massive thanks to djigneo/apparent1 for the initial C# code. As of this release, all features of the patch are fully exposed and can be decoded into a JSON object for further use. - Patch visualizer has been updated with more information to help you understand patches at a quick-glance. - Added the ability to search and sort for patches by author name. This applies to Local and Bank tabs only. PS tab author search and sort will not be supported at this time due to the API structure. - Updated patch importing so that patches with near-identical names are merged upon import (instead of strictly identical names). - Updated the behavior of the SD and Bank tables so that multiples can be selected and moved in different ways: Hold Shift and click the start and end patches to move and/or Hold Ctrl/Cmd and click on each patch you'd like to move. - Patches can now be moved into a bank in the following ways: Dragging single or multiple selections (similar options as above) at once and/or Clicking the Add to Bank button for single selections at a time. - Added a Clear Bank button to wipe the bank tables clean. - Added a new Help toolbar which allows users to access documentation and useful ZOIA resources. These will display in the PS tab browser panel. You can also search for different commands/shortcuts. - Added a Reset UI menu option in the event that users mangle the UI panels or tables. - Updated the light theme colors to give it a more muted look. - Alternating row colors is now a saved preference. It will save whatever is the current setting upon closing the application. - Added a step-by-step guide for how to compile the application from source for developers, contributors or users who were unable to open the beta builds. - Added our first Linux build! We aim to support the latest stable version of Ubuntu going forward. If you are a Linux user who prefers other distributions, please contact me.
Fixes - Fixed an issue that occurred while importing a version history (Mac). - Removed the threads used with menu action multi-import functions (Mac temporary fix). - Fixed an issue where the dates of imported patches were back-dated to the history of the SD card. - Fixed an issue with SD card imported files having mangled filenames (Windows). This also caused patches to not export properly. - Fixed an issue where changing the font/font size didn't apply to themes or buttons.
Known Issues - Certain patch binaries cannot be fully decoded due to being saved on deprecated ZOIA firmware. - Saved UI preferences are not being applied correctly for the Local Storage tab - specifically the vertical splitter (Mac).
Future Plans - Expansion view of routing for patch visualizer. Right now, the connections are displayed on a module-block level, but not from a general patch level. The expander would provide an in-depth visualization of audio and CV routing, likely to be displayed in a new tab. - Extend the binary decoder methods into an API for other applications/programs to utilize. - Simplify and automate code structure for releases (currently, a minimal-working version of the code needs to be created for the app-building process). - Allow for custom themes/colors in the UI. - Actually fix threading issues associated with menu action multi-imports.
As always, we welcome any feedback you may have. Thanks for being awesome :) - Mike M.
submitted by meanmedianmoge to ZOIA [link] [comments]

Composition Challenge #25: September 14, 2020 – Sonata Form, Part 1: Exposition

Greetings, /musictheory! Welcome to our composition challenge. This is a space to put theory into practice by writing your own original music. An archive of all composition challenges, past and present, can be found in the wiki.
This challenge thread will be stickied from September 14 through October 5.

Rules

The emphasis here is on skill acquisition. In order to build a knowledge base that will enable you to engage with the larger corpus of music theory and analysis, observe the following:
  1. Submissions must include standard notation. If you don't know how to read or write with standard notation, consult a music theory textbook or websites such as https://www.musictheory.net/ or http://teoria.com/.
  2. Satisfy all items on the challenge prompt. There is always room to write in excess of the prompt, but you should solve the compositional problems given in the challenge.
  3. Post submissions as replies to this thread.
  4. There is no deadline to submit and we encourage you to explore these prompts whenever you feel like it. However, know that challenge threads will be un-stickied and will receive less attention after the first Monday of the next month.

Challenge

Compose a two-part sonata form exposition for piano. (The next challenge will involve crafting a development section and recapitulation, so don't worry about the rest of the form just yet.)
  • Use the formal scheme P TR MC S C. (See theory section for details.)
  • If P is in the major mode, S should be in the dominant key.
  • If P is in the minor mode, S should be in the relative major key or the minor dominant key.
  • Use periods and/or sentences as the basis of your P and S themes.
  • Use a linear intervallic pattern (LIP) somewhere in your exposition.

Theory

Sonata Theory

This challenge uses terminology and concepts from James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy's landmark treatise, Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata. You will construct a Type-3 sonata, as this is what most sources mean when they say "sonata form." This is your Exposition/Development/Recapitulation model, where a tonal and rhetorical problem is set up in the exposition and eventually worked out by the time the recapitulation rolls around.
This is what a two-part exposition looks like. You will be composing one of these. Observe the tonal plan and arrangement of items. And here is a zoomed out vie of a Type-3 Sonata Form. (Both diagrams are from page 17 of Hepokoski & Darcy's book.)
Abbreviation Definition
P Primary Theme The first theme and the beginning of sonata space; sets the feel for the movement.
TR Transition Facilitates the modulation from the home key to the new key in the exposition. Recomposed in the recapitulation so that it doesn't modulate. Builds energy.
MC Medial Caesura A cadence followed by a rest that separates TR from S.
S Secondary Theme Structurally and sometimes rhetorically opposes P.
EEC Essential Expositional Closure The cadential goal of an exposition. The first cadence after S in the expo.
ESC Essential Structural Closure The cadential goal of a recapitulation and of the whole movement. The first cadence after S in the recap.
C Closing Zone Postcadential material that follows S and concludes a rotation of sonata space. May be as little as a small codetta, may include a genuine closing theme, may have several modules.
Thematic areas may contain more than one "theme," but for this exercise try to focus on producing one really good P theme and one really good S theme.
Videos:

Sentences & Periods

Linear Intervallic Patterns & Sequences

Linear intervallic patterns are voice-leading patterns that prolong a harmony and possibly bridge the space between two structural chords. Sequences are built upon LIPs, but not all LIPs are sequences.

Examples

  • The primary theme and transition of Mozart's C major piano sonata, K.545, contains a sequence/LIP. Analysis. Note that P is a sentence ending on a half-cadence (with the continuation prolonged by its merger with TR). These things don't have to be long; the total path from P to the MC only takes 12 measures in this sonata.
  • Beethoven - Piano Sonata No. 19, Op.49, No.1, I. / Score – P is a modulating period (with a sentential antecedent!), where the consequent also acts as the TR. There is no MC here (rather, it is filled in — called "caesura fill"). The S theme is a parallel period beginning at m.16; the consequent begins at m.21 and goes to m.25, but then consequent repeats (what Janet Schmalfeldt calls the "one more time" technique), so the resolution happens at the downbeat of m.29. The C zone is just 4 measures with a pickup, from mm.30-33 (derived from the beginning of S). Also, if you're following the video, the score is Heinrich Schenker's edition, which inexplicably has the measure numbers at the end of the measure, making it look like the measure numbers are one bar off from where they should be.
  • Marianne von Martinez – Piano Sonata No. 3 in E Major / Score — Kind of a cool thing going on here. Here is the exposition analyzed. First off, notice that there are two themes in the S group: one is a sentence (S1), the other is a period (S2). S2 elides with the beginning of the Closing Zone, and C itself is basically the material of P and TR transposed into the dominant key. It's a little unusual but not unheard of. This movement is actually a Type-2 Sonata Form (the so-called "binary" sonata form), but since we're only looking at the exposition, that doesn't matter so much for us right now. However, the fact that the C zone is so P/TR-based plays into the rotational nature of the Type-2.
  • Joseph Haydn – Keyboard Sonata in E minor, Hob.XVI:34/ Score – Here's one in the minor mode. Here is the exposition analyzed. The P theme is a parallel period with a modulation. I'm not really sure what the TR is supposed to be doing here, since it's basically just hanging out in the new key the entire time. It's interesting to note that in the recapitulation, P and TR are chopped up and put back together as the presentation and continuation of a sentence respectively. (And I'm sure there are other interpretations.) I have the theme type for S identified as a "phrase group," which John David White in The Analysis of Music defines as such: "A group of three or more phrases linked together without the two-part feeling of a period can be termed a phrase-group. Phrase-group is also the appropriate label for a pair of consecutive phrases in which the first is a repetition of the second or in which, for whatever reason, the antecedent-consequent relationship is absent (46)." In this case, we are dealing with the last option.

Notation Resources

You can find links to a variety of notation programs in the wiki.
submitted by Xenoceratops to musictheory [link] [comments]

College apps suck, good luck to anyone currently applying!

Hey all! I know this time of year is really tough for anyone applying to college. Stick in there!
Demographics
Intended Major(s): Classics
Academics
Standardized Testing
Extracurriculars/Activities
  1. Local chapter of Junior Classical League (4 years), President
  2. Orchestra (4 years), Concertmaster
  3. Debate (4 years), Team Captain, won state in my senior year
  4. Teaching Assistant at Chinese camp (4 years)
  5. Science Olympiad (4 years), Team Captain
  6. Pit Orchestra (3 years)
  7. Congressional Debate (2 years)
  8. Quiz Bowl (4 years)
  9. Environmental Club (3 years)
  10. Private Violin Tutor (1 year)
Awards/Honors
  1. Questbridge National College Match Scholarship Finalist
  2. National Merit Scholar
  3. National Speech and Debate Association Superior Distinction
Letters of Recommendation
I had really good relationships with both of my recommenders. One was my Latin teacher who I had been taking classes from all 4 years, and was the mentor to JCL, an activity that I was really involved in. The other was my APUSH teacher who coached Quiz Bowl, which I was involved in for all four years of high school. I also chatted with both teachers pretty regularly about non-class stuff.
In the end, both of their recommendations were... just fine. Not bad by any means, but nothing about them stands out, they were just generic. (I was able to see them bc I had to request pdf versions from the teachers for a scholarship later.)
Interviews
My Yale interview was amazing, it was a phone interview with an AO that wasn't in charge of my area. It was meant to be ~30 minutes but we talked for over an hour, and it was a really fun conversation! Since I applied REA, it was my first college interview experience and I was so relieved that it felt like a natural conversation. We talked about history and classics (my intended major at the time) and random small historical things that I was passionate about.
My other interviews... not so great. I had interviews for Harvard and Princeton, and they were both just with unenthused alumni that lived in my area. The interviewers just asked me questions about test scores and extracurriculars that would've already been covered by my application. Harvard interviewer did let me know that the interview is one of the least-considered parts of your application.
Essays
My personal statement was a mediocre child-of-immigrants essay. There is truly so little to say about it. I think my supplementals and short answers were much better written, and I really liked my optional essay for Harvard, which was about mythology and gender, how I related old myths to problems in my personal life.
Decisions (indicate ED/EA/REA/SCEA/RD)
Acceptances:
Waitlists/Rejections: N/A
*I applied to only top schools in RD bc I had already gotten into Yale REA and got good fin aid from them, so I didn't end up applying to any more targets or safeties.
Additional Information:
Feel free to comment or pm me with any questions! I remember how stressful and soul-sucking this process is and would love to be of help!
Edit: I'm already a year into college (not a prefrosh) so feel free to ask me questions about Yale student life too! I'm pretty involved in activist and queer circles :)
submitted by plain_tomato to collegeresults [link] [comments]

APD Statement Regarding Arrest of Rosalinda Nuno Trevino


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE July 7, 2020 Contact: Public Information Office, (512) 974-5017 APD Statement Regarding Arrest of Rosalinda Nuno Trevino
APD is aware of a video that is circulating involving the arrest of 40-year-old Rosalinda Nuno Trevino for multiple hazardous traffic violations.
Regarding Case# 20-1860985, on July 4, 2020, Austin Police Department Motor Unit Officers were riding their motorcycles behind a protest march to keep people safe from vehicular traffic. Ms. Trevino was driving a white SUV behind these motor officers. Ms. Trevino began to follow the officers very closely with her vehicle and honk her horn continuously. She drove through empty parking spaces and attempted to move her vehicle around the officers’ motorcycles. Officers told Ms. Trevino to stay behind their motorcycles to ensure the safety of the people marching. Ms. Trevino then stopped her vehicle, ran up to an officer and requested his badge number, which the officer provided.
At the intersection of 2nd Street and Congress Avenue, Ms. Trevino started to honk the vehicle horn a second time and drove through a red light. Ms. Trevino then stopped her vehicle again and approached officers. Ms. Trevino was placed under arrest for the multiple hazardous traffic violations to include, running a red light, failure to yield the right-of-way to pedestrians, improper use of a horn and failure to maintain an assured clear distance. As a crowd began to form, officers moved Ms. Trevino to the front of an officer’s vehicle to conduct a search before transporting her to jail. While conducting the search, he advised Ms. Trevino that a female officer was not available. He conducted the search in front of a police vehicle where a vehicle camera could document and at least one other officer was present, as required by APD policy.
Full APD Policy: https://www.austintexas.gov/sites/default/files/files/Police/General%20Orders.pdf
APD Frisk/Search Training Video: https://youtu.be/XgdZBwQ-0Og
Portions of APD Policy have been copied below with highlighted explanations for your convenience:
306.3.1 SEARCH PROTOCOL
Nothing in this order supersedes officer safety tactics.
(a) Officers will conduct person searches with dignity and courtesy.
(b) Officers will conduct property searches in a manner that returns the condition of the property to its pre-search status as nearly as reasonably practicable.
(c) Officers should attempt to acquire keys to locked property when a search is anticipated, and the time and effort required to gain the keys makes it a practicable option.
(d) It is the responsibility of each individual officer to search a prisoner for weapons or contraband anytime he gains custody of that prisoner, regardless of whether the prisoner was previously searched by another officer.
(e) When safety permits:
  1. Officers should explain to the person being searched the reason for the search and how the search will be conducted.
2. When practical, an officer of the same gender should be called to the scene when officers believe the subject is concealing items in a sensitive area, such as evidence or narcotics in the groin, buttocks, or breast areas. This does not apply to items that pose an immediate threat to officer safety.
  1. If a subject requests a search by an officer of the same gender, an attempt should be made to have a same gender officer conduct the search.
  2. If a same gender officer is unavailable, the search should be conducted in front of a Mobile Audio Video (MAV) recording system, if available, or a second officer should be present.
  3. If the gender of the individual needing to be searched comes into question, officers should respectfully inquire as to whether the individual identifies as transgender. When an individual self-identifies as transgender, officers will not question this identity absent articulable, compelling reasons, nor will an officer inquire about intimate details of an individual's anatomy to determine gender. Officers needing to search a person who has disclosed that, or the officer recognizes by prior knowledge, the individual is Transgender, Intersex, and/or Fender Non-Binary/Gender Non-Conforming (TIGN), should, when practicable, conduct the search based on the gender with which the individual identifies. (For example, a Female-to-Male individual should, when practicable, be searched by a male officer, or by a female officer who conducts an opposite gender search. A Male-to-Female individual should, when practicable, be searched by a female officer, or by a male officer who conducts an opposite gender search).
  4. Officers will use the backside of their hands and fingers to frisk/search sensitive areas of the opposite gender to include the breast, crotch, and buttocks.
306.6 SEARCH INCIDENT TO ARREST
The general authority to search incident to a lawful custodial arrest is not qualified or limited by the type of arrest. Objects of the search are weapons, evidence, and/or means of escape.
(a) Persons:
  1. When officers make a lawful arrest, they are permitted to conduct a contemporaneous search of the arrestee. Such a search safeguards the arresting officer and others nearby from harm while ensuring that the arrestee will not discard or destroy evidence.
  2. It is entirely reasonable for arresting officers to search the area where the defendant might reach in order to grab a weapon or evidence.
306.9 FRISK (PAT-DOWN) FOR WEAPONS
A frisk is a mere pat-down of the outer clothing, area, vehicle or container to which a detained person may have immediate access. The purpose of a limited weapons frisk after an investigatory stop is not to discover crime, but to allow the officer to pursue the investigation without fear of violence. An officer does not need to be absolutely certain that an individual is armed; the issue is whether a reasonably prudent person would justifiably believe that he or others were in danger.
(a) Persons:
  1. A frisk is a limited patting of the outer surfaces of a person's clothing in an attempt to find weapons. A frisk can only be used by officers when they justifiably stop someone and have a reasonable fear for their safety, the safety of the public, or when a cautious and prudent officer under the same or similar circumstances would conduct a pat-down.
  2. Normally, officers cannot put their hands under the suspect's outer clothing until they feel something they reasonably believe is a weapon. If the outer clothing is too bulky to allow officers to decide if a weapon is concealed underneath, outer clothing such as overcoats and jackets may be opened to allow a pat down of the inner clothing, such as shirts and trousers.
  3. Packages, purses, briefcases and other containers may be frisked during the stop.
  4. The scope of a protective frisk is limited to persons and places within arm's reach of a concealed weapon or toward which the subject might lunge.
submitted by ATX_311 to Austin [link] [comments]

Unable to run custom scripts via dmenu when it is started with i3's mod+d key

I have encountered strange behaviour regarding dmenu_run and dmenu_recency. When I run dmenu_run or dmenu_recency from terminal and then execute simple script like echo "test" value test is printed in the terminal. However when I run dmenu_recency or dmenu_run with i3 keybinding like:
bindsym $mod+d exec --no-startup-id dmenu_recency
and then execute same simple script, then nothing happens. Dmenu lunches for other installed programs works well, it just doesen't work for execuution of my custom scripts.
What am I missing here? I suspect I have to add something else to my scripts but i dont know what. For now it is jsut plain this:
echo "test"

EDIT: Ok maybe script: echo "test" is not the best example since it is true that there is no opened terminal to write to.
But same thing happens if I try to execute script that looks like this:
code ~/.i3/config
This jsut opens the i33 config file with visual studio code. Again this works when I execute it via dmenu_run that was called from existing termina but it doesen't work when executed via dmenu_run that was called via i3 keybinding mod+d
EDIT 2:
.i3/config
# i3 config file (v4) # Please see http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html for a complete reference! # Set mod key (Mod1=, Mod4=) set $mod Mod4 # My testing shortcuts bindsym $mod+c exec code bindsym $mod+Shift+x exec terminal; exec terminal bindsym $mod+F4 exec /home/erik/Programs/pycharm-community-2020.2.1/bin/pycharm.sh bindsym $mod+Shift+F2 exec /home/erik/CustomScripts/google_calendar # CONFIGURABLE PRINTSCREENS OPTIONS # take a screenshot of a screen region and copy it to a clipboard #bindsym --release Shift+Print exec "ScreenCapture.sh -s /home/erik/Pictures/Screenshots/" # take a screenshot of a whole window and copy it to a clipboard #bindsym --release Print exec "ScreenCapture.sh /home/erik/Pictures/Screenshots/" # set default desktop layout (default is tiling) # workspace_layout tabbed  # Configure border style  default_border pixel 2 default_floating_border normal # Hide borders hide_edge_borders none # change borders bindsym $mod+u border none bindsym $mod+y border pixel 1 bindsym $mod+n border normal # You can also use any non-zero value if you'd like to have a border (this is to prevent issues with gaps) # for_window [class=".*"] border pixel 1 # Font for window titles. Will also be used by the bar unless a different font # is used in the bar {} block below. font xft:URWGothic-Book 11 # Use Mouse+$mod to drag floating windows floating_modifier $mod # start a terminal bindsym $mod+Return exec terminal # kill focused window bindsym $mod+Shift+q kill # start program launcher # bindsym $mod+d exec --no-startup-id dmenu_recency bindsym $mod+d exec --no-startup-id home/erik/CustomScripts/redit_solution dmenu_recency # launch categorized menu bindsym $mod+z exec --no-startup-id morc_menu ################################################################################################ ## sound-section - DO NOT EDIT if you wish to automatically upgrade Alsa -> Pulseaudio later! ## ################################################################################################ #exec --no-startup-id volumeicon #bindsym $mod+Ctrl+m exec terminal -e 'alsamixer' exec --no-startup-id start-pulseaudio-x11 exec --no-startup-id pa-applet bindsym $mod+Ctrl+m exec pavucontrol ################################################################################################ # Screen brightness controls # bindsym XF86MonBrightnessUp exec "xbacklight -inc 10; notify-send 'brightness up'" # bindsym XF86MonBrightnessDown exec "xbacklight -dec 10; notify-send 'brightness down'" # Start Applications bindsym $mod+Ctrl+b exec terminal -e 'bmenu' bindsym $mod+F2 exec chromium bindsym $mod+F3 exec pcmanfm # bindsym $mod+F3 exec ranger bindsym $mod+Shift+F3 exec pcmanfm_pkexec bindsym $mod+F5 exec terminal -e 'mocp' bindsym $mod+t exec --no-startup-id pkill compton bindsym $mod+Ctrl+t exec --no-startup-id compton -b bindsym $mod+Shift+d --release exec "killall dunst; exec notify-send 'restart dunst'" bindsym Print exec --no-startup-id i3-scrot bindsym $mod+Print --release exec --no-startup-id i3-scrot -w bindsym $mod+Shift+Print --release exec --no-startup-id i3-scrot -s bindsym $mod+Shift+h exec xdg-open /usshare/doc/manjaro/i3_help.pdf bindsym $mod+Ctrl+x --release exec --no-startup-id xkill focus_follows_mouse no # change focus bindsym $mod+j focus left bindsym $mod+k focus down bindsym $mod+l focus up bindsym $mod+semicolon focus right # alternatively, you can use the cursor keys: bindsym $mod+Left focus left bindsym $mod+Down focus down bindsym $mod+Up focus up bindsym $mod+Right focus right # move focused window bindsym $mod+Shift+j move left bindsym $mod+Shift+k move down bindsym $mod+Shift+l move up bindsym $mod+Shift+semicolon move right # alternatively, you can use the cursor keys: bindsym $mod+Shift+Left move left bindsym $mod+Shift+Down move down bindsym $mod+Shift+Up move up bindsym $mod+Shift+Right move right # workspace back and forth (with/without active container) workspace_auto_back_and_forth yes bindsym $mod+b workspace back_and_forth bindsym $mod+Shift+b move container to workspace back_and_forth; workspace back_and_forth # split orientation bindsym $mod+h split h;exec notify-send 'tile horizontally' bindsym $mod+v split v;exec notify-send 'tile vertically' bindsym $mod+q split toggle # toggle fullscreen mode for the focused container bindsym $mod+f fullscreen toggle # change container layout (stacked, tabbed, toggle split) bindsym $mod+s layout stacking bindsym $mod+w layout tabbed bindsym $mod+e layout toggle split # toggle tiling / floating bindsym $mod+Shift+space floating toggle # change focus between tiling / floating windows bindsym $mod+space focus mode_toggle # toggle sticky bindsym $mod+Shift+s sticky toggle # focus the parent container bindsym $mod+a focus parent # move the currently focused window to the scratchpad bindsym $mod+Shift+minus move scratchpad # Show the next scratchpad window or hide the focused scratchpad window. # If there are multiple scratchpad windows, this command cycles through them. bindsym $mod+minus scratchpad show #navigate workspaces next / previous bindsym $mod+Ctrl+Right workspace next bindsym $mod+Ctrl+Left workspace prev # Workspace names # to display names or symbols instead of plain workspace numbers you can use # something like: set $ws1 1:mail # set $ws2 2: set $ws1 1 set $ws2 2 set $ws3 3 set $ws4 4 set $ws5 5 set $ws6 6 set $ws7 7 set $ws8 8 # switch to workspace bindsym $mod+1 workspace $ws1 bindsym $mod+2 workspace $ws2 bindsym $mod+3 workspace $ws3 bindsym $mod+4 workspace $ws4 bindsym $mod+5 workspace $ws5 bindsym $mod+6 workspace $ws6 bindsym $mod+7 workspace $ws7 bindsym $mod+8 workspace $ws8 # Move focused container to workspace bindsym $mod+Ctrl+1 move container to workspace $ws1 bindsym $mod+Ctrl+2 move container to workspace $ws2 bindsym $mod+Ctrl+3 move container to workspace $ws3 bindsym $mod+Ctrl+4 move container to workspace $ws4 bindsym $mod+Ctrl+5 move container to workspace $ws5 bindsym $mod+Ctrl+6 move container to workspace $ws6 bindsym $mod+Ctrl+7 move container to workspace $ws7 bindsym $mod+Ctrl+8 move container to workspace $ws8 # Move to workspace with focused container bindsym $mod+Shift+1 move container to workspace $ws1; workspace $ws1 bindsym $mod+Shift+2 move container to workspace $ws2; workspace $ws2 bindsym $mod+Shift+3 move container to workspace $ws3; workspace $ws3 bindsym $mod+Shift+4 move container to workspace $ws4; workspace $ws4 bindsym $mod+Shift+5 move container to workspace $ws5; workspace $ws5 bindsym $mod+Shift+6 move container to workspace $ws6; workspace $ws6 bindsym $mod+Shift+7 move container to workspace $ws7; workspace $ws7 bindsym $mod+Shift+8 move container to workspace $ws8; workspace $ws8 # Open applications on specific workspaces # assign [class="Thunderbird"] $ws1 # assign [class="Pale moon"] $ws2 # assign [class="Pcmanfm"] $ws3 # assign [class="Skype"] $ws5 # Open specific applications in floating mode for_window [title="alsamixer"] floating enable border pixel 1 for_window [class="calamares"] floating enable border normal for_window [class="Clipgrab"] floating enable for_window [title="File Transfer*"] floating enable for_window [class="fpakman"] floating enable for_window [class="Galculator"] floating enable border pixel 1 for_window [class="GParted"] floating enable border normal for_window [title="i3_help"] floating enable sticky enable border normal for_window [class="Lightdm-settings"] floating enable for_window [class="Lxappearance"] floating enable sticky enable border normal for_window [class="Manjaro-hello"] floating enable for_window [class="Manjaro Settings Manager"] floating enable border normal for_window [title="MuseScore: Play Panel"] floating enable for_window [class="Nitrogen"] floating enable sticky enable border normal for_window [class="Oblogout"] fullscreen enable for_window [class="octopi"] floating enable for_window [title="About Pale Moon"] floating enable for_window [class="Pamac-manager"] floating enable for_window [class="Pavucontrol"] floating enable for_window [class="qt5ct"] floating enable sticky enable border normal for_window [class="Qtconfig-qt4"] floating enable sticky enable border normal for_window [class="Simple-scan"] floating enable border normal for_window [class="(?i)System-config-printer.py"] floating enable border normal for_window [class="Skype"] floating enable border normal for_window [class="Timeset-gui"] floating enable border normal for_window [class="(?i)virtualbox"] floating enable border normal for_window [class="Xfburn"] floating enable # switch to workspace with urgent window automatically for_window [urgent=latest] focus # reload the configuration file bindsym $mod+Shift+c reload # restart i3 inplace (preserves your layout/session, can be used to upgrade i3) bindsym $mod+Shift+r restart # exit i3 (logs you out of your X session) bindsym $mod+Shift+e exec "i3-nagbar -t warning -m 'You pressed the exit shortcut. Do you really want to exit i3? This will end your X session.' -b 'Yes, exit i3' 'i3-msg exit'" # Set shut down, restart and locking features bindsym $mod+0 mode "$mode_system" set $mode_system (l)ock, (e)xit, switch_(u)ser, (s)uspend, (h)ibernate, (r)eboot, (Shift+s)hutdown mode "$mode_system" { bindsym l exec --no-startup-id i3exit lock, mode "default" bindsym s exec --no-startup-id i3exit suspend, mode "default" bindsym u exec --no-startup-id i3exit switch_user, mode "default" bindsym e exec --no-startup-id i3exit logout, mode "default" bindsym h exec --no-startup-id i3exit hibernate, mode "default" bindsym r exec --no-startup-id i3exit reboot, mode "default" bindsym Shift+s exec --no-startup-id i3exit shutdown, mode "default" # exit system mode: "Enter" or "Escape" bindsym Return mode "default" bindsym Escape mode "default" } # Resize window (you can also use the mouse for that) bindsym $mod+r mode "resize" mode "resize" { # These bindings trigger as soon as you enter the resize mode # Pressing left will shrink the window’s width. # Pressing right will grow the window’s width. # Pressing up will shrink the window’s height. # Pressing down will grow the window’s height. bindsym j resize shrink width 5 px or 5 ppt bindsym k resize grow height 5 px or 5 ppt bindsym l resize shrink height 5 px or 5 ppt bindsym semicolon resize grow width 5 px or 5 ppt # same bindings, but for the arrow keys bindsym Left resize shrink width 5 px or 5 ppt bindsym Down resize grow height 5 px or 5 ppt bindsym Up resize shrink height 5 px or 5 ppt bindsym Right resize grow width 5 px or 5 ppt # exit resize mode: Enter or Escape bindsym Return mode "default" bindsym Escape mode "default" } # Lock screen bindsym $mod+9 exec --no-startup-id blurlock # Autostart applications exec --no-startup-id /uslib/polkit-gnome/polkit-gnome-authentication-agent-1 exec --no-startup-id nitrogen --restore; sleep 1; compton -b # exec --no-startup-id manjaro-hello exec --no-startup-id nm-applet exec --no-startup-id xfce4-power-manager exec --no-startup-id pamac-tray exec --no-startup-id clipit exec --no-startup-id picom # exec --no-startup-id blueman-applet # exec_always --no-startup-id sbxkb exec --no-startup-id start_conky_maia # exec --no-startup-id start_conky_green exec --no-startup-id xautolock -time 10 -locker blurlock exec_always --no-startup-id ff-theme-util exec_always --no-startup-id fix_xcursor # Color palette used for the terminal ( ~/.Xresources file ) # Colors are gathered based on the documentation: # https://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#xresources # Change the variable name at the place you want to match the color # of your terminal like this: # [example] # If you want your bar to have the same background color as your # terminal background change the line 362 from: # background #14191D # to: # background $term_background # Same logic applied to everything else. set_from_resource $term_background background set_from_resource $term_foreground foreground set_from_resource $term_color0 color0 set_from_resource $term_color1 color1 set_from_resource $term_color2 color2 set_from_resource $term_color3 color3 set_from_resource $term_color4 color4 set_from_resource $term_color5 color5 set_from_resource $term_color6 color6 set_from_resource $term_color7 color7 set_from_resource $term_color8 color8 set_from_resource $term_color9 color9 set_from_resource $term_color10 color10 set_from_resource $term_color11 color11 set_from_resource $term_color12 color12 set_from_resource $term_color13 color13 set_from_resource $term_color14 color14 set_from_resource $term_color15 color15 # Start i3bar to display a workspace bar (plus the system information i3status if available) bar { i3bar_command i3bar status_command i3status position bottom ## please set your primary output first. Example: 'xrandr --output eDP1 --primary' # tray_output primary # tray_output eDP1 bindsym button4 nop bindsym button5 nop # font xft:URWGothic-Book 11 strip_workspace_numbers yes colors { background #222D31 statusline #F9FAF9 separator #ff9a1f # border backgr. text focused_workspace #ff9a1f #ff9a1f #292F34 active_workspace #595B5B #353836 #FDF6E3 inactive_workspace #595B5B #222D31 #EEE8D5 binding_mode #16a085 #2C2C2C #F9FAF9 urgent_workspace #16a085 #FDF6E3 #E5201D } } # hide/unhide i3status bar bindsym $mod+m bar mode toggle # Theme colors # class border backgr. text indic. child_border client.focused #ff9a1f #ff9a1f #000000 #ff9a1f client.focused_inactive #2F3D44 #2F3D44 #1ABC9C #454948 client.unfocused #2F3D44 #2F3D44 #1ABC9C #454948 client.urgent #CB4B16 #FDF6E3 #1ABC9C #268BD2 client.placeholder #000000 #0c0c0c #ffffff #000000 client.background #2B2C2B ############################# ### settings for i3-gaps: ### ############################# # Set inneouter gaps gaps inner 0 gaps outer 0 # Additionally, you can issue commands with the following syntax. This is useful to bind keys to changing the gap size. # gaps inner|outer current|all set|plus|minus  # gaps inner all set 10 # gaps outer all plus 5 # Smart gaps (gaps used if only more than one container on the workspace) smart_gaps on # Smart borders (draw borders around container only if it is not the only container on this workspace) # on|no_gaps (on=always activate and no_gaps=only activate if the gap size to the edge of the screen is 0) smart_borders on # Press $mod+Shift+g to enter the gap mode. Choose o or i for modifying outeinner gaps. Press one of + / - (in-/decrement for current workspace) or 0 (remove gaps for current workspace). If you also press Shift with these keys, the change will be global for all workspaces. set $mode_gaps Gaps: (o) outer, (i) inner set $mode_gaps_outer Outer Gaps: +|-|0 (local), Shift + +|-|0 (global) set $mode_gaps_inner Inner Gaps: +|-|0 (local), Shift + +|-|0 (global) bindsym $mod+Shift+g mode "$mode_gaps" mode "$mode_gaps" { bindsym o mode "$mode_gaps_outer" bindsym i mode "$mode_gaps_inner" bindsym Return mode "default" bindsym Escape mode "default" } mode "$mode_gaps_inner" { bindsym plus gaps inner current plus 5 bindsym minus gaps inner current minus 5 bindsym 0 gaps inner current set 0 bindsym Shift+plus gaps inner all plus 5 bindsym Shift+minus gaps inner all minus 5 bindsym Shift+0 gaps inner all set 0 bindsym Return mode "default" bindsym Escape mode "default" } mode "$mode_gaps_outer" { bindsym plus gaps outer current plus 5 bindsym minus gaps outer current minus 5 bindsym 0 gaps outer current set 0 bindsym Shift+plus gaps outer all plus 5 bindsym Shift+minus gaps outer all minus 5 bindsym Shift+0 gaps outer all set 0 bindsym Return mode "default" bindsym Escape mode "default" } 
.bashrc
# # ~/.bashrc # [[ $- != *i* ]] && return colors() { local fgc bgc vals seq0 printf "Color escapes are %s\n" '\e[${value};...;${value}m' printf "Values 30..37 are \e[33mforeground colors\e[m\n" printf "Values 40..47 are \e[43mbackground colors\e[m\n" printf "Value 1 gives a \e[1mbold-faced look\e[m\n\n" # foreground colors for fgc in {30..37}; do # background colors for bgc in {40..47}; do fgc=${fgc#37} # white bgc=${bgc#40} # black vals="${fgc:+$fgc;}${bgc}" vals=${vals%%;} seq0="${vals:+\e[${vals}m}" printf " %-9s" "${seq0:-(default)}" printf " ${seq0}TEXT\e[m" printf " \e[${vals:+${vals+$vals;}}1mBOLD\e[m" done echo; echo done } [ -r /usshare/bash-completion/bash_completion ] && . /usshare/bash-completion/bash_completion # Change the window title of X terminals case ${TERM} in xterm*|rxvt*|Eterm*|aterm|kterm|gnome*|interix|konsole*) PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -ne "\033]0;${USER}@${HOSTNAME%%.*}:${PWD/#$HOME/\~}\007"' ;; screen*) PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -ne "\033_${USER}@${HOSTNAME%%.*}:${PWD/#$HOME/\~}\033\\"' ;; esac use_color=true # Set colorful PS1 only on colorful terminals. # dircolors --print-database uses its own built-in database # instead of using /etc/DIR_COLORS. Try to use the external file # first to take advantage of user additions. Use internal bash # globbing instead of external grep binary. safe_term=${TERM//[^[:alnum:]]/?} # sanitize TERM match_lhs="" [[ -f ~/.dir_colors ]] && match_lhs="${match_lhs}$(<~/.dir_colors)" [[ -f /etc/DIR_COLORS ]] && match_lhs="${match_lhs}$(/dev/null \ && match_lhs=$(dircolors --print-database) [[ $'\n'${match_lhs} == *$'\n'"TERM "${safe_term}* ]] && use_color=true if ${use_color} ; then # Enable colors for ls, etc. Prefer ~/.dir_colors #64489 if type -P dircolors >/dev/null ; then if [[ -f ~/.dir_colors ]] ; then eval $(dircolors -b ~/.dir_colors) elif [[ -f /etc/DIR_COLORS ]] ; then eval $(dircolors -b /etc/DIR_COLORS) fi fi if [[ ${EUID} == 0 ]] ; then PS1='\[\033[01;31m\][\h\[\033[01;36m\] \W\[\033[01;31m\]]\$\[\033[00m\] ' else PS1='\[\033[01;32m\][\u@\h\[\033[01;37m\] \W\[\033[01;32m\]]\$\[\033[00m\] ' fi alias ls='ls --color=auto' alias grep='grep --colour=auto' alias egrep='egrep --colour=auto' alias fgrep='fgrep --colour=auto' else if [[ ${EUID} == 0 ]] ; then # show root@ when we don't have colors PS1='\u@\h \W \$ ' else PS1='\u@\h \w \$ ' fi fi unset use_color safe_term match_lhs sh alias cp="cp -i" # confirm before overwriting something alias df='df -h' # human-readable sizes alias free='free -m' # show sizes in MB alias np='nano -w PKGBUILD' alias more=less xhost +local:root > /dev/null 2>&1 complete -cf sudo # Bash won't get SIGWINCH if another process is in the foreground. # Enable checkwinsize so that bash will check the terminal size when # it regains control. #65623 # http://cnswww.cns.cwru.edu/~chet/bash/FAQ (E11) shopt -s checkwinsize shopt -s expand_aliases # export QT_SELECT=4 # Enable history appending instead of overwriting. #139609 shopt -s histappend # # # ex - archive extractor # # usage: ex  ex () { if [ -f $1 ] ; then case $1 in *.tar.bz2) tar xjf $1 ;; *.tar.gz) tar xzf $1 ;; *.bz2) bunzip2 $1 ;; *.rar) unrar x $1 ;; *.gz) gunzip $1 ;; *.tar) tar xf $1 ;; *.tbz2) tar xjf $1 ;; *.tgz) tar xzf $1 ;; *.zip) unzip $1 ;; *.Z) uncompress $1;; *.7z) 7z x $1 ;; *) echo "'$1' cannot be extracted via ex()" ;; esac else echo "'$1' is not a valid file" fi } #Custom programs export PATH="/home/uusePrograms/pycharm-community-2020.2.1/bin:$PATH" # Custom scritps export PATH="/home/useCustomScripts:$PATH" 

submitted by Amuoeba8 to i3wm [link] [comments]

A trans person's measured take on the trans sports issue

So first of all this post was inspired by GGExMachina's brief statement on the issue:
For example, it is objectively the case that biological men have a physical advantage over women. Yet if someone points this out and suggests that transgender people shouldn’t be allowed to fight in women’s UFC, or women’s soccer or weightlifting competitions or whatever, suddenly you’re some kind of evil monster. Rather than saying that of course trans people shouldn’t be bullied and that we could perhaps have a trans olympics (like the Paralympics and Special Olympics), we are expected to lie.
I've found that this position is incredibly popular among liberals/left-leaning people, especially here on reddit. It seems like, once or twice a month, like clockwork, a thread stating more or less the same thing on /unpopularopinion or /offmychest will get thousands of upvotes. And while I completely understand the thought process that leads otherwise left-leaning people to come to such conclusions, I feel like the issue has been, broadly speaking, dishonestly presented to the general public by a mixture of bad-faith actors and people who have succumbed to the moral panic. And, as I've seen, there are plenty of people in this subreddit and elsewhere who are itching to be as supportive as they possibly can to the trans community but find themselves becoming very disillusioned by this particular issue. By making this post I hope to present a more nuanced take on the issue, not only in regards to my personal beliefs on what kinds of policies are best to preserve fairness in women's sports but also in regards to shining a light on how this issue is often times dishonestly presented in an attempt to impede the progression of pro-trans sentiments in the cultural zeitgeist.

Sex & Gender

The word "transgender" is an umbrella term that refers to people whose gender identities differ from those typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth. According to the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, the approximate composition of "the trans community" in the United States is 29% Transgender men (Female-to-Male), 33% Transgender women (Male-to-Female), and 35% non-binary. (The remaining 3% were survey respondents who self-identified as "crossdressers", who were still included in the survey on the grounds of being gender non-conforming)
While non-binary people, as a group, are probably deserving of their own separate post. the focus of this post will be on trans men and trans women. I will also be primarily focusing on transgender people who pursue medical transition with Hormone-Replacement-Therapy, as they are most relevant to the issue of sports. (Mind that while the majority of binary trans people fit into this camp, there is a sizable minority of trans people who do not feel the need to medically transition.)
What do trans people believe about Gender?
The views of transgender people in regards to Gender are actually pretty varied, although the most prominent positions that I've personally seen are best summed up into two different camps:
  1. The "Trans-Medical" camp
Transgender people who fall into this camp usually consider Gender Dysphoria to be the defining factor of what makes somebody trans. The best way I can describe this camp is that they sort of view being transgender akin to being intersex. Only whereas an intersex person would be born with a disorder that affects the body, a trans person is born with a disorder that affects the brain. Trans people in this camp often times put an emphasis on a clinical course for treatment. For example, a person goes to a psychologist, gets diagnosed with gender dysphoria, starts hormone replacement therapy, pursues surgery, then emerges from this process of either cured of the gender dysphoria or, at the very least, treated to the fullest extent of medical intervention. This position is more or less the original position held by trans activists, back in the day when the word "transsexual" was used instead of "transgender". Though many younger trans people, notably YouTuber Blaire White, also hold this position. Under this position, sex and gender are still quite intertwined, but a trans man can still be considered a man, and a trans woman a woman, under the belief that sex/gender doesn't just refer to chromosomal sex and reproductive organs, but also to neurobiology, genitalia, and secondary sex characteristics. So someone who is transgender, according to this view, is born with the physical characteristics of one sex/gender but the neurobiology of another, and will change their physical characteristics, to the fullest extent medically possible, to match the neurobiology and therefore cure the individual of gender dysphoria.
Critics of this position argue that this mentality is problematic due to being inherently exclusive to transgender people who do not pursue medical transition, whom are often times deemed as "transtrenders" by people within this camp. Many people find it additionally problematic because it is also inherently exclusive to poorer trans people, particularly those in developing nations, who may not have access to trans-related medical care. Note that there are plenty of trans people who *do* have access to medical transition, but nevertheless feel as if the trans community shouldn't gatekeep people who cannot afford or do not desire medical transition, thus believing in the latter camp.
  1. The "Gender Identity" camp
I feel like this camp is the one most popularly criticized by people on the right, but is also probably the most mainstream. It is the viewpoint held by many more left-wing trans people, (Note that in the aforementioned 2015 survey, only 1% of trans respondents voted Republican, so trans people are largely a pretty left-wing group, therefore it makes sense that this position would be the most mainstream) but also notably held by American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, GLAAD, and other mainstream health organizations and activist groups.
While people in this camp still acknowledge that medical transition to treat gender dysphoria can still be a very important aspect of the transgender experience, it's believed that the *defining* experience is simply having a gender identity different from the one they were assigned at birth. "Gender identity" simply being the internal, personal sense of being a man, a woman, or outside the gender binary.
Many people in this camp, though, still often maintain that gender identity is (at least partially) neurobiological, but differ from the first camp in regards to acknowledging that the issue is less black & white than an individual simply having a "male brain" or a "female brain", but rather that the neurological characteristics associated with gender exist on more of a spectrum, thus leaving the door open to gender non-conforming people who do not identify as trans, as well as to non-binary people. This is where the "gender is a spectrum" phrase comes from.
"52 genders" is a popular right-wing meme that makes fun of this viewpoint, however it is important to note that many trans and non-binary people disagree with the idea of quantifying gender identity to such an absurd amount of individual genders, rather more simply maintaining that there are men, women, and a small portion of people in-between, with a few words such as "agender" or "genderqueer" being used to describe specific identities/presentations within this category.
It's also noteworthy that not all people in this camp believe that neurobiology is the be-all-end-all of gender identity, as many believe that the performativity of gender also plays an integral role in one's identity. (That gender identity is a mixture of neurobiology and performativity is a position held by YouTuber Contrapoints)
Trans people and biological sex
So while the aforementioned "Gender Identity" viewpoint has become quite popularized among liberals and leftists, I have noticed a certain rhetorical mentality/assumption become prevalent alongside it, especially among cisgender people who consider themselves trans-allies:
"Sex and Gender are different. A trans woman is a woman who is biologically male. A trans man is a man who is biologically female"
When "Sex" is defined by someone's chromosomes, or the sex organs they were born with, this is correct. However, there is a pretty good reason why the trans community tends to prefer terms like "Assigned Male at Birth" rather than "Biologically Male". This is done not only for the inclusion of people who are both intersex and transgender (For example, someone can be born intersex but assigned male based on the existence of a penis or micropenis), but also due to the aforementioned viewpoint on divergent neurobiology being the cause for gender dysphoria. Those reasons are why the word "Assigned" is used. But the reason why it's "Assigned Male/Female At Birth" instead of just "Assigned Male/Female" is because among the trans community there exists an understanding of the mutability of sexually dimorphic biology that the general population is often ignorant to. For example, often times people (especially older folks) don't even know of the existence of Hormone Replacement Therapy, and simply assume that trans people get a single "sex change operation" that, (for a trans woman) would just entail the removal of the penis and getting breast implants. Therefore they imagine the process to be "medically sculpting a male to look female" instead of a more natural biological process of switching the endocrine system form male to female or vice versa and letting the body change over the course of multiple years. It doesn't help that, for a lot of older trans people (namely Caitlyn Jenner, who is probably the most high profile trans person sadly), the body can be a lot more resistant to change even with hormones so they *do* need to rely on plastic surgery a lot more to get obvious results)
So what sexually dimorphic bodily characteristics can one expect to change from Hormone Replacement Therapy?
(Note that there is a surprising lack of studies done on some of the more intricate changes that HRT can, so I've put a "*" next to the changes that are anecdotal, but still commonly and universally observed enough among trans people [including myself for the MTF stuff] to consider factual. I've also put a "✝" next to the changes that only occur when people transition before or during puberty)
Male to Female:
Female to Male:
For the sake of visual representation, here are a couple of images from /transtimelines to demonstrate these changes in adult transitioners (I've specifically chosen athletic individuals to best demonstrate muscular changes)
https://preview.redd.it/ntw333p9sbty.jpg?width=640&crop=smart&auto=webp&s=5fe779757dfc4a5dc56566ff648d337c59fbe5cb
https://www.reddit.com/transtimelines/comments/dpca0f/3_years_on_vitamin_t/
Additionally, here's a picture of celebrity Kim Petras who transitioned before male puberty, in case you were wondering what "female pubescent skeletal development" looks like in a trans woman:
https://cdn2.thelineofbestfit.com/images/made/images/remote/https_cdn2.thelineofbestfit.com/portraits/kim_petras_burakcingi01_1107_1661_90.jpg

How does this relate to sports?

Often times, when the whole "transgender people in sports" discussion arises, a logical error is made when *all* transgender people are assumed to be "biologically" their birth sex. For example, when talking about trans women participating in female sports, these instances will be referred to as cases of "Biological males competing against females".
As mentioned before, calling a trans woman "biologically male" strictly in regards to chromosomes or sex organs at birth would be correct. However, not only can it be considered derogatory (the word "male" is colloquially a shorthand for "man", after all), but there are many instances where calling a post-HRT transgender person "biologically [sex assigned at birth]" is downright misleading.
For example, hospitals have, given transgender patients improper or erroneous medical care by assuming treatment based on birth sex where treatment based on their current endocrinological sex would have been more adequate.
Acute Clinical Care of Transgender Patients: A Review
Conclusions and relevance: Clinicians should learn how to engage with transgender patients, appreciate that unique anatomy or the use of gender-affirming hormones may affect the prevalence of certain disease (eg, cardiovascular disease, venous thromboembolism, and osteoporosis), and be prepared to manage specific issues, including those related to hormone therapy. Health care facilities should work toward providing inclusive systems of care that correctly identify and integrate information about transgender patients into the electronic health record, account for the unique needs of these patients within the facility, and through education and policy create a welcoming environment for their care.
Some hosptials have taken to labeling the biological sex of transgender patients as "MTF" (for post-HRT trans women) and "FTM" (for post-HRT trans men), which is a much more medically useful identifier compared to their sex assigned at birth.
In regards to the sports discussion, I've seen *multiple threads* where redditors have backed up their opinions on the subject of trans people in sports with studies demonstrating that cis men are, on average, more athletically capable than cis women. Which I personally find to be a pathetic misunderstanding of the entire issue.
Because we're not supposed to be comparing the athletic capabilities of natal males to natal females, here. We're supposed to comparing the athletic capabilities of *post-HRT male-to-females* to natal females. And, if we're going to really have a fact-based discussion on the matter, we need to have separate categories for pre-pubescent and post-pubescent transitioners. Since, as mentioned earlier, the former will likely have different skeletal characteristics compared to the latter.
The current International Olympic Committee (IOC) model for trans participation, and criticisms of said model
(I quoted the specific guidelines from the International Cycling Union, but similar guidelines exist for all Olympic sports)
Elite Competition
At elite competition levels, members may have the opportunity to represent the United States and participate in international competition. They may therefore be subject to the policies and regulations of the International Cycling Union (UCI) and International Olympic Committee (IOC). USA Cycling therefore follows the IOC guidelines on transgender athletes at these elite competition levels. For purposes of this policy, international competition means competition sanctioned by the UCI or competition taking place outside the United States in which USA Cycling’s competition rules do not apply.
The IOC revised its guidelines on transgender athlete participation in 2015, to focus on hormone levels and medical monitoring. The main points of the guidelines are:
Those who transition from female to male are eligible to compete in the male category without restriction. It is the responsibility of athletes to be aware of current WADA/USADA policies and file for appropriate therapeutic use exemptions.
Those who transition from male to female are eligible to compete in the female category under the following conditions:
The athlete has declared that her gender identity is female. The declaration cannot be changed, for sporting purposes, for a minimum of four years.
The athlete must demonstrate that her total testosterone level in serum has been below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to her first competition (with the requirement for any longer period to be based on a confidential case-by-case evaluation, considering whether or not 12 months is a sufficient length of time to minimize any advantage in women’s competition).
The athlete's total testosterone level in serum must remain below 10 nmol/L throughout the period of desired eligibility to compete in the female category.
Compliance with these conditions may be monitored by random or for-cause testing. In the event of non-compliance, the athlete’s eligibility for female competition will be suspended for 12 months.
Valid criticisms of the IOC model are usually based on the fact that, even though hormone replacement therapy provokes changes to muscle mass, it does *not* shrink the size of someone's skeleton or cardiovascular system. Therefore an adult-transitioned trans woman could, even after losing all levels of male-typical muscle mass, still have an advantage in certain sports if she had an excessively large skeletal frame, and was participating in a sport where such a thing would be advantageous.
Additionally, the guidelines only require that athletes be able to demonstrate having had female hormone levels for 12-24 months, which isn't necessarily long enough to completely lose musculature gained from training on testosterone (anecdotally it can take 2-4 years to completely lose male-typical muscle mass) So the IOC guidelines don't have any safeguard against, for example, a trans woman training with testosterone as the dominant hormone in her body, and then taking hormones for the bare minimum time period and still having some of the advantage left.
Note that, while lower level sports have had (to the glee of right-wing publications sensationalizing the issue) instances of this exact thing happening, in the 16 years since these IOC guidelines were established, not a single transgender individual has won an Olympic medal
Also note that none of the above criticisms of the IOC policy would apply in regards to the participation of pre-pubescent-transitioned trans women. After all, male-pubescent bone structure and cardiovascular size, and male-typical muscle levels, can't possibly exist if you never went through male puberty to begin with.
What could better guidelines entail, to best preserve fairness in female sports while avoiding succumbing to anti-trans moral panic?
In my personal opinion, sports leagues should pick one of the three above options depending on what best fits the nature of the sport and the eliteness of the competition. For example, extremely competitive contact sports might be better off going with the first option, but an aerobic sport such as marathon running would probably be fine with the third option.

How this issue has been misrepresented by The Right

I'll use Joe Rogan as an example of this last thing:
She calls herself a woman but... I tend to disagree. And, uh, she, um... she used to be a man but now she has had, she's a transgender which is (the) official term that means you've gone through it, right? And she wants to be able to fight women in MMA. I say no f***ing way.
I say if you had a dick at one point in time, you also have all the bone structure that comes with having a dick. You have bigger hands, you have bigger shoulder joints. You're a f***ing man. That's a man, OK? You can't have... that's... I don't care if you don't have a dick any more...
If you want to be a woman in the bedroom and you know you want to play house and all of that other s*** and you feel like you have, your body is really a woman's body trapped inside a man's frame and so you got a operation, that's all good in the hood. But you can't fight chicks. Get the f*** out of here. You're out of your mind. You need to fight men, you know? Period. You need to fight men your size because you're a man. You're a man without a dick.
I'm not trying to discriminate against women in any way, shape, or form and I'm a big supporter of women's fighting. I loved watching that Ronda Rousey/Liz Carmouche fight. But those are actual women. Those are actual women. And as strong as Ronda Rousey looks, she's still looks to me like a pretty girl. She's a beautiful girl who happens to be strong. She's a girl! [Fallon Fox] is not a girl, OK? This is a [transgender] woman. It's a totally different specification.
Calling a trans woman a "man", and equating transitioning to merely removal of the dick, and equating trans women's experiences as women as "playing house" and "being a woman in the bedroom". These things are obviously pretty transphobic, and if Rogan had said these things about just any random trans woman his statements would have likely been more widely seen in that light. But when it's someone having an unfair advantage in sports, and the audience is supposed to be angry with you, it's much more socially acceptable thing to say such things. But the problem is, when you say these kinds of things about one trans woman, you're essentially saying those derogatory things about all trans women by extension. It's the equivalent of using an article about a black home invader who murdered a family as an excuse to use a racial slur.
Now, I'm not saying that Rogan necessarily did this on purpose, in fact I'm more inclined to believe that it was done moreso due to ignorance rather than having an actual ideological agenda. But since then, many right wing ideologues who do have an ideological agenda have used this issue as an excuse to voice their opinions on trans people while appearing to be less bigoted. Ie. "I'm not trying to be a bigot or anything and I accept people's rights to live their lives as they see fit, but we NEED to keep men out of women's sports", as a sly way to call trans women "men".
Additionally, doing this allows them to slip in untrue statements about the biology of trans women. I mean, first of all in regards to the statement "You have bigger hands, you have bigger shoulder joints", obviously even in regards to post-pubescent transitioners, not every trans woman is going to have bigger hands and shoulder joints than every cis woman (My hands are actually smaller than my aunt's!). It's just that people who go through male puberty on average tend to have bigger hands and shoulder joints compared to people who go through female puberty. But over-exaggerating the breadth of sexual dimorphism, as if males and females are entirely different species to each-other, helps to paint the idea of transitioning in a more nonsensical light.
I hope this thread has presented this issue in a better light for anyone reading it. Let me know if you have any thoughts/criticisms of my stances or the ways I went about this issue.
submitted by Rosa_Rojacr to samharris [link] [comments]

The motion to delay and revise the re-entry plan is not a binary issue. Don't buy the politics.

TLDR:
People are being goaded into taking sides on whether or not we should open schools. This is not the issue at hand when considering the motions made by Mr. Shurr at the most recent Special Session of the school board. The issue at hand is whether the current plan (Published June 30) is the most inventive solution we can offer that minimizes the risk of lifelong disability and/or death for the students and, more immediately, the many high-risk adults who work in the public schools around the country. If you’ve ever been in an American workplace, you know that leaders (especially exhausted ones) can find running out the clock on a decision period more desirable than engaging in critical discussion. With stakes as high as they are, the motions are meant to ensure this does not happen with our public schools.
Here is a link to the most critical 20 minutes of the Special Session of the school board meeting from Tuesday, July 21st.
The Details:
This is a throwaway account, and an attempt at a complete statement of my opinion. This does not reflect anyone’s opinion but my own based on public information. Feel free to share any and all of this if you’d like. I don’t plan to respond to comments or DMs.
A considerable number of parents, students, and teachers (many of whom are at high risk of contracting COVID-19 or live with an elder who is) feel the traditional school model poses too much risk and that we need to pause and revise the plan. Fairly, many people who need the child care/specialized services provided by the schools have voiced their frustration and unwillingness to support such a measure because they believe this must mean that schools will be closed for an extended period of time. This fabricated binary allows an outdated plan to look preferable to pausing and revising because:
All this said, the parents who need their students in school are justified in their attitudes and arguments.
At one of the large high schools
At the other,
Even if you ignore the certain occurrence of some crossover within these categories, this is still less than half of the total student population. A number of these students may still choose to stay home with the online option. Similarly, there are probably students who do not fall into these categories but still need to come to school sometimes for some reason or another. Either way, this suggests that there is an opportunity to serve a MUCH smaller number of students in the building and reduce risk to everyone involved.
I will admit this would be harder to organize at the elementary level, where districting decisions have left some schools in a more difficult situation than others in terms of student needs because some schools have:
Perhaps the lesser risk in general at the elementary level doesn’t demand an alternative-to-traditional model. Perhaps identifying students who need to be in a learning center and finding a way to get them to a less crowded school should be part of the conversation. Regardless, I imagine that some schools will already be operating at a much lower capacity than normal due to the online option while others will be close to full.
All of this should show that this is:
This is what pause and revise is really about. While I’m sure people are exhausted, I refuse to believe that Bloomington has exhausted its creativity, resources, and inventiveness on the current plan especially in light of the totally changed context. If you agree that we can do better, please reach out to the Board of School Trustees and the Monroe County Health Department in time for the last meeting before the school year. The meeting is on Tuesday, July 28.
[cfr@mccsc.edu](mailto:cfr@mccsc.edu)
[swanser@mccsc.edu](mailto:swanser@mccsc.edu)
[eruh@mccsc.edu](mailto:eruh@mccsc.edu)
[mstreet@mccsc.edu](mailto:mstreet@mccsc.edu)
[jgides@mccsc.edu](mailto:jgides@mccsc.edu)
[kklein@mccsc.edu](mailto:kklein@mccsc.edu)
[bshurr@mccsc.edu](mailto:bshurr@mccsc.edu)
[kbutcher@mccsc.edu](mailto:kbutcher@mccsc.edu)
[healthdept2@co.monroe.in.us](mailto:healthdept2@co.monroe.in.us)
I have edited for the sake of clarity and organization. I wish I could edit the title u/Smease1 made a great point below.
submitted by Dry-Consequence-539 to bloomington [link] [comments]

Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Swaps* (*But Were Afraid To Ask)

Hello, dummies
It's your old pal, Fuzzy.
As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great.
What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. I do my bit to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post.
That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets - spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way.
We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps.
Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy.
TL;DR? Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle.
Ready? Let's get started.
1. The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life
The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third outcome. If you hedged against the possibility of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows:
Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself.
Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part.
You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus.
That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically. In wallstreetbets terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it.
Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets?
2. A Hedging Taxonomy
The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now.
(i) Swaps
A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one.
Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered.
The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game.
I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise! - the rate gets better after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging.
There are many different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested.
Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure).
(ii) Forwards
A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me.
Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways.
People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances.
These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them.
(iii) Collars
No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray!
To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts.
(3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs
You may have heard about the mythical ISDA. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years.
First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA.
Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire.
Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking?
Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt. They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama.
Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details.
I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here.
Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post.
*EDIT 1\* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
submitted by fuzzyblankeet to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Unpopular opinion: HL Math doesn't cover enough content

This might be a (very) unpopular opinion, but I don't think the IB Math course (particularly (Analysis) HL) covers enough content. I'm not saying that it's too easy (it's certainly not easy for most people), but rather I'm saying there are topics which are important to know which the course leaves out completely. I get that students have 5 (or more) other subjects along with TOK+EE, so of course it can't go too deep. It also has to cover a wide range of topics, which makes looking at rigorous mathematics difficult without putting too much in (which a student may not be able to handle).
I'm first going to break down the syllabus by topic and subtopic and comment on what I think should be kept, removed or added to it. Note that this applies both to the current HL syllabus (ending in 2020) as well as Analysis HL (which is more or less the same as the current HL). I'll be referring to the Analysis HL course in the breakdown, as it's the current course.
Here's a list of subtopics (not necessarily exhaustive) which are in the current syllabus:
Now here's what I would add to each topic. It's very likely that this isn't feasible to achieve in a course like this, but I'll talk about this later.
I realize this is quite a lot to add, and as mentioned it very likely isn't feasible to do. Rather than add this content to the existing course, it might be better to create a separate course entirely. This would essentially create another "Further Math", which seems a bit problematic. After all, there's a reason the original Further Math was removed: practically nobody took it. I'm guessing that the reason for this is because most schools didn't offer it, not because people couldn't do it or anything. I think regardless of the lack of popularity, (some form of) Further should still be an option to those who are willing and able to take it. Certainly if someone is passionate enough, they can learn it themselves.
Another issue with having the additional content in a separate course is there might not be so much in that course to call it one. Like the previous HL course, the original Further Math course had 6 topics; each of which studied a distinct area of math. I mentioned that the geometry topic doesn't need to add much more, but maybe one could add hyperbolic trig functions as a subtopic, or perhaps some non-Euclidean geometry (spherical, hyperbolic and projective).
If someone is willing to teach themselves the content, however, this begets some other problems. For example, there may be risks to self-teaching for the purpose of an exam; they might learn the material fine but find it difficult to write the papers (due to time issues or not being able to respond the right way for full marks) without sufficient practice. Also if few students are doing AA HL anyway, why the need for an additional course at all? Why can't they just teach themselves additional content as they please? I say if you're going to learn additional content, why not take an exam to assess your skills? Otherwise it might seem like a waste to learn it if you aren't going to do anything else with it. Having an additional course would also give structure to the additional content; there would be a syllabus specifying exactly what a student needs to know for the course and it would be tailored to students who have completed or are taking AA HL and would thus complement that course. That way, a student doesn't need to look for a bunch of undergraduate textbooks or anything; and none of these are likely to serve the student well enough.
Overall, I feel like the course lacks mathematical rigor. But maybe I'm getting ahead of myself. Feel free to share what you think. Do you think the AA HL course doesn't cover enough? If so, what would you add or change?
submitted by Liammcquay to IBO [link] [comments]

Killteam Equinox Chapter 19: Shadow From the Warp

A few minutes before the shells began to fall, Matthias was standing outside the lift which would take him up to the manufactorum. He stared at it, somewhat pale, as if it were the inside of a heavy flamer rather than a lift. It had been days since his captain had gone to the aid of the Astartes, and he had heard nothing. There had been no report on her. The rest of the command squad, the entire astropathic choir, and every member of the guard assigned to protect them were listed as dead. But the captain on the other hand wasn’t even listed MIA. If the reports were to be believed, then she was alive and well. Which led to the question of where in the god-emperor’s name she was after a battle that catastrophic.
Matthias had considered that there were three likely options. The first was that she was dead, and the Astartes were concealing that fact to preserve morale. This seemed the most likely to him, but considering how his last encounter with the space marines had ended, he wasn’t about to ask them.
The second was that she had been injured, and so he had checked with any and all medical staff. The medic with the squad had reported she had seen the captain, badly injured, taken in a Valkyrie towards the manufactorum. He had only recently discovered this kernel of information, after two days of digging. It was still more likely that she was dead, but it at least laid to rest the third possibility, one that was all but impossible, but still had haunted him: that for whatever reason, she had turned from the emperor’s light, and simply been erased, forgotten from history.
He considered this possibility slightly less likely than Morn showing up for tea and biscuits, but it still nagged at him. He recalled an old parable “blessed is the mind too small for doubt.” Sometimes he wondered if the Ogryns, abhuman as they were, were actually among the most blessed of all the God-Emperor’s servants because of that.
Still, the trail led here, to the manufactorum. So he summoned his courage, and entered the lift shaft. As he rose, he felt his headache beginning to grow worse from the binary whine. He had slept little, busy managing the regiment back into something resembling a proper structure after Morn’s… not decimation, decimation would have been a mercy, obliteration, of the prior command structure. In between focusing on that he had attempted to track down his supposed superior officer. If she was to be the new Colonel, as Matthias suspected she would be, given the Astartes favor of her, she would need to know every detail.
And, much as he layered it in practical, logical arguments to sway the mechanicus as best as he was able, he simply was concerned for her.
He emerged from the lift shaft about midway up the manufactorum, and quickly attempted to find his bearings. The interior of the factory-temple was as alien to him as the sea floor, and he did not belong here any more than he did there. He moved with feigned purpose, acting as if he knew where he was going, and that it was also very important that he got there. He engaged a practiced “nobleman’s stride” which was about as useful on the servitors as any other sort of social interaction, then abandoned it, for just getting around them.
As he maneuvered away from the ghoulish servants, he glanced back and shivered. Nobody liked servitors, except the mechanicus, and he wasn’t entirely certain about that. He looked forwards and stopped, backpedaling away swiftly. The green armor and black hood and cape of Andriel swept by him. His breath caught in his throat, heart skipping a beat. It then plummeted to the core of the planet when the dark angel turned and looked at him balefully. He took another two steps away from the librarian, then remembered himself and saluted.
“Atra is above, yes she is alive, no she is not well, her plasma gun overloaded and she’s been rebuilt primarily out of cybernetics, yes somewhat like that Catachan but no she’s still wearing her shirt.” Andriel told him curtly. “No, you may not see her but yes I will inform her of your concerns and of her duties, and no I cannot confirm or deny whether she will be the new colonel.”
Matthias paused, stunned speechless. “And because I am a psyker, therefore I can read your mind more quickly than you can speak, and thus do not need to spend as much time dealing with you, as I cannot be bothered to waste time making you mortals feel comfortable around that which you rightly fear. Now go away. You have no responsibilities here that vastly more experienced and qualified servants of the emperor are not already attending to.” Andriel concluded, and turned away.
Matthias stood flabbergasted, attempting to process what had just happened. Andriel hadn’t shot him, that was a good thing. Atra was alive, that was a good thing. Andriel could read his every thought before he even had them, that was… well Andriel was on his side, and also he knew he was loyal, so it wasn’t a bad thing, but that didn’t make having it done any less uncomfortable. His headache was growing substantially worse, and there was an uncomfortable buzzing in his brain.
He started back to the lift. He’d gotten the answers he wanted, though he hadn’t seen Atra personally. It occurred to him that Andriel could be lying to him, the dark angels were infamous for their secrets, but even if he was, it wouldn’t matter. He’d been ordered to leave, and so he was going to leave.
His headache began to pound, and he staggered, falling to his side and holding onto the wall. The buzzing in his head became more intense, an all consuming ringing which drowned out all other noise. It pulsed, beating like a heart. He felt nauseous, and then felt his limbs go limp, losing all feeling to them. What was this? It reminded him almost of the Genestealer’s psychic attack, was Andriel doing this?
The all-consuming buzzing, chittering, screaming roaring drowned his ears, and he felt nothing. He tasted nothing for the first time in his life. He could now describe what his mouth had tasted like. His sense of smell on the other hand intensified. He drew in breaths, of some sweet and astounding scent, like… well he had no words for it, every breath filled his mind with euphoria even as his brain was filled with a tornado of shattered glass and chainswords.
He nearly slipped away into the strange convocation of sensation, but some part of him registered that his eyes were still working. In fact it felt like he saw more, or saw differently. He registered the servitors no longer with fear, but with animal analysis. Prey, weak, more food, less food. Threat.
The last descriptor came as his eyes fell on Andriel. The Dark Angel had fallen to a knee, staff raised high. Arcane energies swirled around him, and the tech adepts backed away, chittering in their strange cant. They staggered and stumbled, as if they were drunk, or something beneath had shaken them. Strange, he didn’t recall looking towards Andriel, and why was he getting closer? Feeling returned in one of his fingers, the familiar grip of his hotshot pistol.
A flood of memories struck him, throwing him off his feet and into the swirling mists of Alvarea. He remembered the day he received them. He was twelve standard years of age, time enough for him to have a weapon of his own. How massive the pair of pistols had seemed at the time, their warm faux-wooded grip, the brilliant and bright focusing lens. He remembered the careful maintenance each evening, against water and wear, to honor the weapons he used. Death he had dealt. Ork boys, near enough to his men to charge, cut down, concentrated beam punching through primitive helm and through the brain, renegades from a planet’s PDF, unorganized, scattering under the guns. In the cold decks of battleships on sea and star, in the tight and deadly fighting the Alvaerans specialized in. The librarian, Andriel, fighting off the psychic attack himself, on his knees, with only a hood, not a helmet.
Wait, no stop! He saw his arm raise, the pistol leveled at Andriel’s exposed head. “Stop! Stop me! I’m not in control! Help!” He screamed, but his mouth did not open. It hung, drooling, and he began to pull the trigger.
The las-bolt went wide, as ceiling and floor spun and began indistinct from one another. He hit the ground, hand already on the other pistol. His body fired it towards the center of the rising mass that was Andriel, but it stuck harmlessly on a psychic barrier. The librarian jerked his staff to the side, and the other pistol went flying out of hand. He then pulled it back, and he rushed forwards- no, Matthias was flung though the air towards him. He froze in front of the space marine’s enraged face, and Andriel placed a hand on his forehead.
Lightning tore through Matthias’s body, and he began to scream. The space marine forced their eyes to meet, and Matthias fell. His soul seemed to tumble from its disconnected frame, through iron walls and stone corridors, out into the void. But the void did not freeze him, and it was not dark. For an eternal instant he burned, in lights too countless and alien to describe. Then he fell towards a golden beam, like the sun, like forces so potent that they were only found in nature. But not a nature, a godlike soul, piercing the imatterium like a spine-mounted lance cannon. He fell into that golden infinity, and felt his whole being come apart. He did not burn, what was felt was so utterly beyond burning that it lacked words.
He fell to the ground, his mouth full of blood. He’d bitten the tip of his tongue off. His eyes were bleeding as well, and, well, he hoped that was blood leaking out of his ears and not his brain. He spat out the tip of his tongue and spat blood hurriedly so as to not choke. The bleeding stopped, or rather was stopped, as he felt the rest of feeling return.
He could hear again, feel again, smell something other than that awful intoxication again. There were roaring booms, and the floor beneath him shook. “An artillery bombardment, the tyranids don’t have artillery.” He slurred. He shouldn’t be speaking that clearly, he’d, ah it was back.
“No, but they don’t have las-pistols either, and yet one just shot one at me, using you.” Andriel explained. “It appears the attack was widely directed.”
“Attack?” Matthias asked, still confused. “I… oh, by the god-emperor I tried to shoot you, twice. And then- ah, what, what was, was that the astronomicon? I’ve heard navigators describe it like that. Did you just throw me, or, my mind, or my soul or whatever into the astronomicon?”
“Of course not. There would be nothing left if I had, and if I were that powerful they would have sent just me to deal with the invasion.” Andriel replied. “I simply purified your mind. Which is why you are saying literally everything you think. I have removed all internal restraints as well as a side effect of the purification.”
“Well I have no idea what any of that meant but I’m scared shitless of you already and confused and generally entirely out of sorts and really don’t want to be here. God-Emperor’s balls I need a drink and a lie down but nope, getting bombarded, and oh god-emperor I can’t stop talking please someone shut me up before the Astartes shoot me oh-“ And then he shut up.
“You have been shut up.” Andriel replied. “You should return to normal… eventually. I don’t know how long it takes mortals. And I wouldn’t shoot you, I would simply sever every blood vessel in your head and disassemble your blood-brain barrier. Saves ammunition.”
Matthias stared at the dark angel. Had he just made a joke? “I found it funny.” Andriel remarked. “Go find your guns. You’ll need them.” Another blast sounded through the factorum. “I can’t do purification at basilisk range, and it takes a bit of time.”
The first that Morn and Atra knew of the attack was when a missile struck the Stormtalon as they were apporoaching it. The explosion blew both back, Atra hopping slightly to stay on her feet. Then another hit, and another and another, and the pair retreated swiftly inside the manufactorum as shrapnel flew. Atra registered one large piece flying towards her eye, when the refractor field deflected it away, and she ducked behind cover. Morn slammed his fist into the door controls, slamming the great shutters closed before the bombardment could spread. Outside, they could hear the groan of straining metal, and the crash as the landing pad fell off the side of the building.
The building began to shake, as more explosions resounded off all around her. “What in the drowned hells was that?” Atra shouted. “When the feth did the ‘nids get Manticore missiles?”
“I don’t know. You purged the genestealers, and that could have only come from one of the defenses I mounted.” Morn growled. “Whoever is responsible…” He paused, shaking in fury, before he calmed himself and spoke calmly, deliberately, and in the most terrifying tone Atra had ever heard. “They blew up my ship. They are dead.”
It was then that they received Wothin’s message. “Acknowledged, I guessed as much.” Morn asked. “Where are you that you can hear them?”
“In the building, where else?” Wothin replied.
“Why are you in the manufactorum?” Morn asked.
“Educating a fetching young biologus lass on the finer points of Astartes anatomy, clearing up a few misconceptions.” Wothin replied. Morn paused for a moment.
“Very well, meet us in central command, we must evaluate the situation in more detail, and for the omnisiah’s sakes, wear your helmet, the enemy may have heavy bolters now.”
The killteam re-assembled in the central control room, where already several monitors displayed various tech-priests, as well as the canoness of the cathedral of saint Augustina. Constantine nodded at her as he entered. “The emperor protects.”
“Indeed he does, though several of our younger sisters have been given His peace, for their faith was not strong enough.”
“It is the entire city then?” Morn asked as he entered, face grimmer than usual.
“Not merely the city Tech-Brother.” The local magos, a mess of wires and tubes that was only vaguely humanoid, replied. “The attack has fallen on all remaining hives.”
“Planetwide? That shouldn’t be possible.” Morn growled.
“Well it has been done.” The magos replied.
“You’re both correct, it shouldn’t be possible, but somehow it’s been done.” Andriel replied as he entered the room, Matthias trailing close behind him. “It was a single psychic attack, targeting the entire planet. I can feel it in the air, tense as a wire. Whatever is doing this has stretched themselves thin to accomplish it, but it’s been done.”
“I suppose that explains why they targeted our astropaths. If it’s spreading itself that thin, then any psyker could pierce it.” Atra acknowledged.
“Yes, but that doesn’t explain why none of us were effected. It targeted me, but that was a direct attack, not part of the wider spell.” Andriel explained. “I brushed that off without any difficulty at all. However it didn’t affect any of us, or the mechanicus, or Atra. To put it in low gothic, it’s hard to mind control a toaster, but that can’t be all of it.”
“What’s a toaster?” Constantine asked.
“Irrelevant.” The magos replied. “The omnisiah protects us with logic. Clearly he has also shielded the guardswoman.”
“That leaves us.” Ish’van replied as he entered, donning his helmet as he did so.
“Is everyone going to announce themselves by cutting in on the conversation?” The magos replied, mildly annoyed at how cramped his control room was starting to get.
Ish’van politely ignored him. “Andriel, do you think it’s synaptic in nature?”
“Possible. It certainly felt like the hive mind, but…” He frowned. “There is something else, something more than the mere animal mind directed. It is something else, something more, something worse, and I do not know what.” For the first time, he sounded concerned, almost afraid. There was something in this alien even to him. “If the tyranid could do this, it would do it more often. This is something else, something using the tyranids as much as our guardsmen.”
“Regardless of what it is, the real question is what do we do?” Constantine asked. “The manufactorum is a formidable defense, but it cannot hold forever.”
“Bring up the long-range auspex.” Morn ordered. “Show us the status of the fleet.”
A nearby screen appeared, flashing through images with incredible speed. Even the other Astartes struggled to keep up, but Morn watched with cold analysis. “The hive fleet is scattered, the main forces are now moving to provide relief.” He explained. “However, the enemy controls the planetary guns, and we have no way to contact the fleet.”
“They’re walking right into a trap.” Constantine growled. “It will be a massacre, and without support from the fleet, Alvaera will fall.”
“Then holding out is not an option.” Morn replied. “We will find the source of this attack, and destroy it. For the emperor.”
submitted by LordIlthari to The_Ilthari_Library [link] [comments]

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